GNU's Bulletin, vol. 1 no. 19, June, 1995
Table of Contents
- GNU's Who
- Administrivia and Copyright
- What Is the FSF?
- What Is Copyleft?
- What Is the Hurd?
- GNU Utilities Safer!
- Conditions for Using Bison
- GNUs Flashes
- Help from Free Software Companies
- Free Software Redistributors Donate
- Free Software Support
- Postcards Only!
- Zimmermann Legal Defense Fund Appeal
- What Is the LPF?
- News from the LPF
- GNU & Other Free Software in Japan
- Freely Available Texts
- Help the GNU Translation Project
- Forthcoming GNUs
- GNU Software
- Program/Package Cross Reference
- MS-DOS Diskettes
- Tape & CD-ROM Subscription Service
- The Deluxe Distribution
- GNU Documentation
- How to Get GNU Software
- Other GPL'ed Software
- Free Software for Microcomputers
- FSF T-shirt
- Project GNU Wish List
- Thank GNUs
- Donations Translate Into Free Software
- Cygnus Matches Donations!
- Free Software Foundation Order Form
- Address Page
The GNU's Bulletin is the semi-annual newsletter of the Free Software Foundation, bringing you news about the GNU Project.
Free Software Foundation, Inc. Telephone: +1--617--542--5942 51 Franklin St -- Fifth Floor Fax: (including Japan) +1--617--542--2652 Boston, MA 02110-1301 Free Dial Fax (in Japan): USA 0031--13--2473 (KDD) Electronic mail:
Miles Bader has joined us to work on the Hurd with
Michael Bushnell and Roland McGrath.
Roland also maintains
make and the GNU C library.
Ian Murdock does Debian GNU/Linux releases and other programming
Karl Heuer enhances GNU Emacs.
Daniel Hagerty is our system obfuscator and release coordinator. Melissa Weisshaus is working on special documentation projects. Volunteer Charles Hannum helps with typesetting and many other jobs.
Robert J. Chassell is our Secretary/Treasurer. Lisa Bloch is our Executive Director. Bryttan Bradley manages many of the functions of the FSF Office, and Mike Drain is our Distribution Manager. Gena L. Bean has been working part time on special projects.
Richard Stallman continues as a volunteer who does countless tasks, such as Emacs maintenance. Thanks to volunteer Scott Ewing for helping to coordinate all the volunteers in the GNU Project. Thanks to volunteer Tami Friedman for handling much administrivia here at the FSF. Volunteer Len Tower remains our online JOAT (jack-of-all-trades), handling mailing lists, gnUSENET newsgroups, information requests, etc.
Administrivia and Copyright
Written and Edited by: Melissa Weisshaus, Daniel Hagerty, Robert J. Chassell, and Leonard H. Tower Jr.
Illustrations by: Etienne Suvasa
Japanese Edition by: Mieko Hikichi and Nobuyuki Hikichi
ISSN (International Standard Serial Number): 1075-7813
The GNU's Bulletin is published at the end of January and the end of June each year. Please note that there is no postal mailing list. To get a copy, send your name and address with your request to the address on the top menu. Enclosing $0.78 in US Postage and/or a donation of a few dollars is appreciated but not required. If you're from outside the USA, sending a mailing label and enough International Reply Coupons for a package of about 100 grams is appreciated but not required. (Including a few extra International Reply Coupons for copying costs is also appreciated.)
Copyright (C) 1995 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
This page is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 United States License.
...imagine how little used calculus would have been if a court had decided that no one could study, use, or do research on it without paying a royalty to Newton's designated heirs.
- The Independent, October 5, 1992
What Is the FSF?
The Free Software Foundation is dedicated to eliminating restrictions on people's right to use, copy, modify, and redistribute computer programs. We do this by promoting the development and use of free software. Specifically, we are putting together a complete, integrated software system named "GNU" (pronounced "guh-new", "GNU's Not Unix") that will be upwardly compatible with Unix. Most parts of this system are already being used and distributed.
The word "free" in our name refers to freedom, not price. You may or may not pay money to get GNU software, but either way you have two specific freedoms once you get it: first, the freedom to copy a program, and distribute it to your friends and co-workers; and second, the freedom to change a program as you wish, by having full access to source code. You can study the source and learn how such programs are written. You may then be able to port it, improve it, and share your changes with others. If you redistribute GNU software you may charge a distribution fee or give it away, so long as you include the source code and the GPL; see section What Is Copyleft?, for details.
Other organizations distribute whatever free software happens to be available. By contrast, the Free Software Foundation concentrates on the development of new free software, working towards a GNU system complete enough to eliminate the need to use a proprietary system.
Besides developing GNU, the FSF distributes GNU software and manuals for a distribution fee, and accepts gifts (tax-deductible in the U.S.) to support GNU development. Most of the FSF's funds come from its distribution service.
The Board of the Foundation is: Richard M. Stallman, President; Robert J. Chassell, Secretary/Treasurer; Gerald J. Sussman, Harold Abelson, and Leonard H. Tower Jr., Directors.
What Is Copyleft?
The simplest way to make a program free is to put it in the public domain, uncopyrighted. But this permits proprietary modified versions, which deny others the freedom to redistribute and modify; such versions undermine the goal of giving freedom to all users. To prevent this, copyleft uses copyrights in a novel manner. Typically, copyrights take away freedoms; copyleft preserves them. It is a legal instrument that requires those who pass on a program to include the rights to use, modify, and redistribute the code; the code and the freedoms become legally inseparable.
The copyleft used by the GNU Project is made from the combination of a regular copyright notice and the GNU General Public License (GPL). The GPL is a copying license which basically says that you have the aforementioned freedoms. An alternate form, the GNU Library General Public License (LGPL), applies to a few GNU libraries. This license permits linking the libraries into proprietary executables under certain conditions. The appropriate license is included in each GNU source code distribution and in many manuals. Printed copies are available upon request.
We strongly encourage you to copyleft your programs and documentation, and we have made it as simple as possible for you to do so. The details on how to apply either form of GNU Public License appear at the end of each license.
What Is the Hurd?
The Hurd will be the foundation of the GNU system. It is a collection of server processes that run on top of Mach, a free message-passing kernel developed at CMU. Mach's virtual memory management facilities are also used by the Hurd. The GNU C Library will provide the Unix system call interface, using the Hurd servers for those services it can't provide itself.
One goal of the Hurd is to establish a framework for shared development and maintenance. The Hurd is like GNU Emacs in that it will allow users to create and share useful projects without knowing much about the internal workings of the system--projects that might never have been attempted without freely available source, a well-designed interface, and a multiple server design.
Currently, there are free ports of the Mach kernel to the 386 PC, the DEC PMAX workstation, and several other machines, with more in progress, including the Amiga, PA-RISC HP 700, & DEC Alpha-3000. Contact us if you want to help with one of these or start your own. Porting the GNU Hurd & GNU C Library is easy (easier than porting GNU Emacs, certainly easier than porting the compiler) once a Mach port to a particular platform exists. Right now we are using the University of Utah's Mach distribution which we hope will be unified with the distribution produced by the Open Software Foundation.
See section GNUs Flashes for a report on recent progress.
We need volunteers for significant projects relating to the Hurd.
Experienced system programmers who are interested should please send mail
email@example.com. Porting the Mach kernel or the GNU C
Library to new systems is another way to help development of the Hurd.
GNU Utilities Safer!
Barton P. Miller & his colleagues tested the reliability of Unix utility programs in 1990 & 1995. Each time, GNU's utilities came out considerably ahead. They tested seven commercial Unix systems as well as GNU. By subjecting them to a random input stream, they could "crash (with core dump) or hang (infinite loop) over 40% (in the worst case) of the basic utility programs ..." They found that the commercial Unix systems had a failure rate that ranged from 15% -- 43%. In contrast, the failure rate for GNU was only 7%.
For details, see the paper Fuzz Revisited: A Re-examination of the Reliability of Unix Utilities and Services by Barton P. Miller, David Koski, Cjin Pheow Lee, Vivekananda Maganty, Ravi Murthy, Ajitkumar Natarajan, and Jeff Steidl, which is available on the World Wide Web at URL: `ftp://grilled.cs.wisc.edu/technical_papers/fuzz-revisited.ps.Z'.
Conditions for Using Bison
As of Bison version 1.24, we have changed the distribution terms for
yyparse to permit using Bison's output in non-free programs.
Formerly, Bison parsers could be used only in programs that were free
The other GNU tools, such as the GNU C compiler, have never had such a requirement. They could always be used for non-free software. The reason Bison was different was not due to a special policy decision; it resulted from applying the usual General Public License to all of the Bison source code.
The output of the Bison utility--a parser file--contains a verbatim copy
of a sizable piece of Bison: the code for the
(The actions from your grammar are inserted into
yyparse at one
point, but the rest of the function is not changed.) When we applied the
GPL terms to the code for
yyparse, the effect was to restrict the
use of Bison output to free software.
We didn't change the terms because of sympathy for people who want to make software proprietary. Software should be free. But we concluded that limiting Bison's use to free software was doing little to encourage people to make other software free. So we decided to make the practical conditions for using Bison match the practical conditions for using the other GNU tools.
- GNU Emacs 19.29 (See section GNU Software) Emacs 19.29 has just been released. Its new features include support for Windows NT, DEC Alphas, and Motif.
- New Programs and Manual on the Tapes (See section GNU Software)
Texinfo source for the manual Programming in Emacs Lisp: An
Introduction is now on the Lisps/Emacs Tape.
GNU Fortran (
ucblogoare now on the section Languages Tape.
saoimagehave been added to the section Utilities Tape.
- New Source Code CD! (See section June 1995 Source Code CD-ROM) We are releasing the Sixth Edition of our Source Code CD-ROM. It includes Emacs 19.29, and most of the new programs and changes on the tapes.
- FlexFAX (Also see section GNU Software) Its author has renamed FlexFAX to HylaFAX due to a trademark conflict.
- Older FSF CD-ROMs Available at a Reduced Price While supplies last, older versions of our CD-ROMs are available at a reduced price. See the see section Free Software Foundation Order Form, for ordering information.
- GNU Software Now Works on MS-DOS (Also see section GNU Software) GNU Emacs 19 and many other GNU programs have been ported to MS-DOS for i386, i486, & Pentium machines. We ship binaries & sources on the section DJGPP Diskettes, section Emacs Diskettes, section Selected Utilities Diskettes, the section December 1994 Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM, & soon on the section MS-DOS Book with CD-ROM.
- Postscript Versions of GNU Manuals Available for FTP
phi.sinica.edu.twhas Postscript files (for A4 paper) of GNU manuals in `/pub/aspac/gnu/'. The FSF is not responsible for these files.
- Hurd (Also see section What Is the Hurd?)
The GNU Hurd now runs programs native. We have implemented both shared
libraries using ELF, & the popular
ext2file system used by Linux. It can run GCC,
make, Emacs, & most other GNU utilities. Progress is being made so rapidly that by the time you read this it probably does much more. It is right on the verge of being self-hosting (able to run on its own well enough to compile its own source code, & be used for its own development). We have much better device supportm & some new utilities, including a fancy
settrans. For a complete system we still have much more work to do, but we will make an alpha release as soon as the network software is finished & shared libraries have been well tested. We have a mailing list to announce progress; to be added to it, ask
- Mach 4: a new research version of Mach
Complete source and binaries for two versions of the Mach 4 kernel and
related programs, part of an ongoing OS research project at the University
of Utah, are available by anonymous FTP in
One version is essentially a reorganization of CMU's Mach 3 (MK83a) and
currently supports only the Intel x86 architecture. Changes so far have
increased Mach's ease of use & practicality in a PC environment. These
include a much simpler GNU-style build environment; a new kernel boot
mechanism allowing booting using Linux, NetBSD, FreeBSD, or Mach boot
loaders; compatibility with Linux network device drivers (& soon, Linux
SCSI drivers); some new device drivers; & support for the "Lites"
BSD-based single-server. There are pre-built binaries for the kernel,
Lites server, & the compiler tools to build Mach 4 under Linux, NetBSD, or
The other version supports only the PA-RISC 1.1 (HP 700) platform.
It includes the new build environment, some early results of research on
improving Mach RPC, as well as complete HP 700 support. It is
significantly less robust than the x86 version and should be considered an
"alpha snapshot" for hard-core OS hackers only. The snapshot includes a
complete 4.4BSD--Lite based single-server execution environment consisting
of the Mach kernel, the "Lites" BSD-based single-server/emulator, a
complete GNU compiler tool chain for the ELF object format, and essential
Utah expects a major release by December 1995. It will support both
platforms, add more research results in the VM & RPC systems,
add a programmable class server/linker/loader (OMOS),
a powerful interface definition language compiler,
& a portable distributed shared memory system.
`http://www.cs.utah.edu/projects/flexmach/' contains more
information on Mach 4 and related projects at the University of Utah, or
send mail to
- The Dictionary Project The FSF has a copy of the unabridged Century Dictionary, now in the public domain, and we are planning to put it online. We tried OCR, but it wasn't reliable enough. The first group of dictionary volunteers have inputed some entries. We are evaluating their work to see how best to proceed.
- Manuals Updated since Last Bulletin (Also see section GNU Documentation) These new editions includes bug fixes and additional information: Debugging with GDB, Emacs Manual, GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual, Texinfo Manual, and C Library Reference Manual.
- GNU Column in Linux Magazine
firstname.lastname@example.org, a long-time volunteer for the GNU Project, writes "What's GNU?", a semi-regular column in the monthly magazine Linux Journal. The column discusses the GNU Project, its software, and other interesting free software. Authors of significant GNU software packages occasionally write columns as guest columnists.
- Source CD-ROM Subscriptions We offer a subscription service for the Source Code CD-ROM in addition to our tape subscription service. For the price of 3 CD-ROMs (plus any shipping costs) you get the next 4 that we make. We make between two and four updates a year. See section Tape & CD-ROM Subscription Service.
- The FSF Takes Credit Cards We take these credit cards: Carte Blanche, Diner's Club, Mastercard, JCB, Visa, and American Express. Please note that we are charged about 5% of an order's total amount in credit card processing fees. Please consider paying by check instead or adding on a 5% donation to make up the difference.
Help from Free Software Companies
When choosing a free software business, ask those you are considering how much they do to assist free software development, e.g., by contributing money to free software development or by writing free software improvements themselves for general use. By basing your decision partially on this factor, you can help encourage those who profit from free software to contribute to its growth.
Wingnut (SRA's special GNU support group) regularly donates a part of its income to the FSF to support the development of new GNU programs. Listing them here is our way of thanking them. Wingnut has made a pledge to donate 10% of their income to the FSF, and has purchased several Deluxe Distribution packages in Japan. Also see section Cygnus Matches Donations!.
Wingnut Project Software Research Associates, Inc. 1-1-1 Hirakawa-cho, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 102, Japan Phone: (+81-3)3234-2611 Fax: (+81-3)3942-5174 E-mail:
Free Software Redistributors Donate
The Sun Users Group Deutschland and ASCII Corporation (Japan) have added donations to the FSF to the price of their next CD-ROM of GNU software. The producers of the SNOW 2.1 CD added the words "Includes $5 donation to the FSF" to the front of their CD. Potential buyers will know precisely how much of the price is for the FSF and how much is for the redistributor.
Austin Code Works, a redistributor of free software, is supporting free software development by giving the FSF 20% of the selling price for the GNU software packages they produce and sell. Walnut Creek CDROM and Info Magic, two more free software redistributors, are also giving us a percentage of their selling price. CQ Publishing made a large donation from the sales of their book about GAWK in Japanese.
In the long run, the success of free software depends on how much new free software people develop. Free software distribution offers an opportunity to raise funds for such development in an ethical way. These redistributors have made use of the opportunity. Many others let it go to waste.
You can help promote free software development by convincing for-a-fee redistributors to contribute--either by doing development themselves or by donating to development organizations (the FSF and others).
The way to convince distributors to contribute is to demand and expect this of them. This means choosing among distributors partly by how much they give to free software development. Then you can show distributors they must compete to be the one who gives the most.
To make this work, you must insist on numbers that you can compare, such as, "We will give ten dollars to the Foobar project for each disk sold." A vague commitment, such as "A portion of the profits is donated," doesn't give you a basis for comparison. Even a precise fraction "of the profits from this disk" is not very meaningful, since creative accounting and unrelated business decisions can greatly alter what fraction of the sales price counts as profit.
Also, press developers for firm information about what kind of development they do or support. Some kinds make much more long-term difference than others. For example, maintaining a separate version of a GNU program contributes very little; maintaining a program on behalf of the GNU Project contributes much. Easy new ports contribute little, since someone else would surely do them; difficult ports such as adding a new CPU to the GNU compiler contribute more; major new features and programs contribute the most.
By establishing the idea that supporting further development is "the proper thing to do" when distributing free software for a fee, we can assure a steady flow of resources for making more free software.
Free Software Support
The Free Software Foundation does not provide technical support. Our mission is developing software, because that is the most time-efficient way to increase what free software can do. We leave it to others to earn a living providing support. We see programmers as providing a service, much as doctors and lawyers now do; both medical and legal knowledge are freely redistributable, but their practitioners charge for service.
The GNU Service Directory is a list of people who offer support and other consulting services. It is in the file `etc/SERVICE' in the GNU Emacs distribution, `SERVICE' in the GCC distribution, and `/pub/gnu/GNUinfo/SERVICE' on a GNU FTP host (listed in section How to Get GNU Software). Contact us to get a copy or to be listed in it. Those service providers who share their income with the FSF are listed in section Help from Free Software Companies.
If you find a deficiency in any GNU software, we want to know. We have
many Internet mailing lists for bug reports, announcements, and questions.
They are also gatewayed into USENET news as the
You can request a list of the mailing lists from either address on
the top menu.
When we receive a bug report, we usually try to fix the problem. While our bug fixes may seem like individual assistance, they are not; they are part of preparing a new improved version. We may send you a patch for a bug so that you can help us test the fix and ensure its quality. If your bug report does not evoke a solution from us, you may still get one from another user who reads our bug report mailing lists. Otherwise, use the Service Directory.
Please do not ask us to help you install software or learn how to use it--but do tell us how an installation script fails or where documentation is unclear.
If you have no Internet access, you can get mail and USENET news via UUCP. Contact a local UUCP site or a commercial UUCP site such as:
UUNET Communications Services 3060 Williams Drive Fairfax, VA 22031-4648 USA Telephone: +1-800-4UUNET4 +1-703-206-5600 Fax: +1-703-206-5601 Electronic-Mail:
A list of commercial UUCP and Internet service providers is posted
periodically to USENET in the newsgroup
`Subject: How to become a USENET site'. You can also get it via
anonymous FTP from the host
rtfm.mit.edu in the file
`How_to_become_a_USENET_site', in the directory
When choosing a service provider, ask those you are considering how much they do to assist free software development, e.g., by contributing money to free software development or by writing free software improvements themselves for general use. By basing your decision partially on this factor, you can encourage those who profit from free software to contribute to its growth.
CyberWire Dispatch points out that the United States government is continuing its efforts to ban messages that it cannot read.
Such messages use various methods of encryption. These methods are like a traditional paper envelope in that they prevent an unintended person from reading the message. But they are more effective in that only the intended recipient can `open the envelope', that is, decrypt the message and read it. From the point of view of the United States government, a ban on private encryption would turn letters into postcards.
In a Congressional hearing on 11 May 1995, FBI Director Louis Freeh said, "[W]e're in favor of strong encryption ... We just want to make sure we have a trap door and key ...".
Freeh fears that crooks will use unbreakable methods of encryption for their communications unless they are banned; but if these methods are banned, he expects crooks will obligingly use the readable, government-provided methods.
Those who oppose a ban and favor non-governmental encryption point out that a ban will be ineffective against such crooks. The encryption software already exists and is readily available. The law-abiding will send messages that can be read by the government; smart crooks will not.
As a practical matter, the FBI will have little choice but to focus on the messages of law-abiding people who are carrying out actions that are legal and patriotic, but unpopular. This has happened in the past, and there is no reason not to expect this to happen in the future.
If Freeh's hopes become law, non-governmental encryption will become illegal. In the past, the government has favored its `Clipper chip', but a more likely future plan would be for the government to certify several private companies to provide legal encryption, but only for messages that people in the government (and people who bribe them) can read.
We urge you to write your Senators and Representatives in Congress opposing this attack on Americans' Constitutional right "to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable search and seizures ...".
Zimmermann Legal Defense Fund Appeal
Phil Zimmermann, who wrote the public-key encryption program known as Pretty Good Privacy ("PGP") and released it on the Internet, is facing prosecution for "exporting" it out of the United States.
There is a law prohibiting the export of encryption software from the US. Zimmermann did not do this, but the U.S. government hopes to establish that posting an encryption program on a BBS or on the Internet constitutes exporting it--in effect, stretching export control into domestic censorship.
If the U.S. wins, that will have a chilling effect on the free flow of information on the global network, as well as on everyone's privacy from government snooping.
Estimates are that Zimmermann's defense will cost over $100,000--and that doesn't even count lawyers' fees. To help pay this, a legal trust fund, the Philip Zimmermann Defense Fund (PZDF), has been established. Donations are accepted in any reliable form, check, money order, or wire transfer, and in any currency, as well as by credit card.
To send a check or money order by mail, make it payable, not to Phil Zimmermann, but to "Philip L. Dubois, Attorney Trust Account." Mail the check or money order to the following address:
Philip Dubois 2305 Broadway Boulder, CO 80304 USA Telephone: +1-303-444-3885
To send a wire transfer, your bank will need the following information:
Bank: VectraBank Routing #: 107004365 Account #: 0113830 Account Name: ``Philip L. Dubois, Attorney Trust Account''
Meanwhile, the U.S. wants to prohibit the use of encryption which it cannot break, as a "counterterrorist" measure (see section Postcards Only!). To protect your privacy, write your Senators and Representatives in Congress now.
What Is the LPF?
The League for Programming Freedom (LPF) aims to protect the freedom to write software. This freedom is threatened by "look-and-feel" interface copyright lawsuits and by software patents.
The LPF is a grass-roots organization of professors, students, business people, programmers, users, and even software companies dedicated to bringing back the freedom to write programs. The League is not opposed to the legal system that Congress intended--copyright on individual programs. The LPF aims to reverse the recent changes made by judges in response to special interests.
Membership dues in the League are $42 per year for programmers, managers, and professionals; $10.50 for students; $21 for others.
To join, please send a check and the following information:
- Your name and phone numbers (home, work, or both).
- The address to use for League mailings, a few each year (please indicate whether it is your home address or your work address).
- The company you work for, and your position.
- Your email address, so the League can contact you for political action. (If you don't want to be contacted for this, please say so, but please provide your email address anyway.)
Please mention anything about you which would enable your
endorsement of the LPF to impress the public.
- Please say whether you would like to help with LPF activities.
The League is not connected with the Free Software Foundation, and is not concerned with the issue of free software. The FSF supports the LPF because, like any software developer smaller than IBM, it is endangered by software patents, and interface copyrights. You are in danger, too! It would be easy to ignore the problem until you or your employer is sued, but it is more prudent to organize before that happens.
If you haven't made up your mind yet, write to LPF for more information:
League for Programming Freedom 1 Kendall Square - #143 P.O. Box 9171 Cambridge, MA 02139 USA Telephone: +1-617-621-7084 Electronic-Mail:
email@example.comWWW: `http://www.lpf.org/' FTP:
News from the LPF
by Dean Anderson, President, League for Programming Freedom
Borland won its appeal of the Lotus suit!! Lotus successfully sued Borland for infringing on a copyright of its menu structure and may have stood to gain $100 million dollars in a ruling issued in 1993. This appeal reversed that ruling. Lotus has reportedly decided to file an appeal with the Supreme Court. The LPF is making arrangements to file a revised amicus brief should the Supreme Court decide to hear the case.
This is outstanding news and a great victory for the LPF. The arguments and decision very closely match our position, and the amicus brief arranged by the LPF was partly responsible for the outcome of the case. If the decision stands, it may spell the end of user interface copyrights.
The LPF is also happy to have received a tremendous amount of support on the GIF issue. This issue had the double benefit of expressing disapproval of the Unisys patent, and gaining exposure and publicity for the LPF.
Qualcomm recently settled some protracted patent litigation with Interdigital over CDMA technology. (CDMA is a technology for cellular phones picked up by Sprint, AT&T, etc.) In 1993, Interdigital sued Qualcomm and was countersued. After 10 trial days went by, the parties settled.
Even though Qualcomm felt it was not infringing any patents, it paid Interdigital $5.5 million for a blanket license because continuing with the trial and inevitable appeal would be more expensive, even if they eventually won.
Qualcomm just released its earnings report. It wrote off a one-time charge of $13 million to cover the entire case. By simple subtraction, its litigation costs were $7.5 million. Interdigital's own legal and support costs were reportedly $4.5 million. That leaves $1 million for their shareholders and $12 million in litigation costs for the two companies. This is just another example of the excessive costs of software patents.
Things are beginning to heat up. Keep writing letters! Write the LPF,
your representatives, and others. See our Web page at
`http://www.lpf.org/' for more info on how to help the LPF
GNU & Other Free Software in Japan
firstname.lastname@example.org) and Nobuyuki Hikichi
email@example.com) continue to volunteer for the GNU
Project in Japan. They translate each issue of this Bulletin into
Japanese and distribute it widely, along with their translation of the
GNU General Public License Version 2. This translation of the GPL is
authorized by the FSF and is available by anonymous FTP from
ftp.sra.co.jp in `/pub/gnu/local-fix/GPL2-j'.
They are working on a formal translation of the GNU Library General
Public License. They also solicit donations and offer GNU software
nepoch (the Japanese version of Epoch) & MULE are available & widely
used in Japan. MULE (the MULtilingual Enhancement of GNU Emacs) can handle
many character sets at once. Its features are being merged into the
principal version of Emacs. See section GNU Software, for more details on MULE.
The FSF does not distribute
nepoch, but MULE is available
(see section June 1995 Source Code CD-ROM & the section Emacs Diskettes). You
can FTP it from
sh.wide.ad.jp in `/JAPAN/mule', or
etlport.etl.go.jp in `/pub/mule'.
The Village Center, Inc. prints a Japanese translation of the GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual and uploads the Texinfo source to various bulletin boards. They have also published a copylefted book, Nobuyuki's and Mieko's Think GNU. This appears to be the first non-FSF copylefted publication in Japan. Part of their profits are donated to the FSF. Their address is:
Village Center, Inc. 3-2 Kanda Jinbo-cho, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 101, Japan Telephone: 03-3221-3520
Addison-Wesley Publishers Japan Ltd. has printed a Japanese translation of the GNU Make Manual and the GAWK Manual. Their address is:
Addison-Wesley Publishers Japan Ltd. Nichibou Bldg. 2F 1-2-2 Sarugaku-cho, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 101, Japan Telephone: 03-3291-4581
The Institute for New Generation Computer Technology, ICOT, has released
the "ICOT Free Software (IFS)" distribution. The famous Fifth Generation
Computing System project produced IFS, which includes 100 systems for
symbol processing, knowledge processing, problem solving, inference, &
natural language processing. Many of them are based on parallel logic
programming. Nearly half of them run on Unix workstations. The ICOT
research center closed in March 1995, but distribution & maintenance of IFS
will continue. For details, contact
firstname.lastname@example.org, or refer to
There is a mailing list in Japan to discuss both hardware & software which
is under the GNU General Public License, providing information about making
your own computer system. The main language of the list is Japanese. If
you are interested in getting information or having discussions in English,
Many groups in Japan now distribute GNU software. They include JUG, a PC user group; ASCII, a periodical and book publisher; the Fujitsu FM Towns users group; and SRA's special GNU support group, called Wingnut, who also purchased the first Deluxe package in Japan. (Since then, there have been several other purchases of the Deluxe package in Japan.)
It is easy to place an order directly with the FSF from Japan, thus funding
new software. To get an FSF Order Form written in Japanese, ask
We encourage you to buy software on tapes or CDs:
for example, 140 CD-ROM orders at the
corporate rate allows the FSF to hire a programmer for a year to write more
Freely Available Texts
Freely redistributable information isn't just software. We have a list of groups providing various books, historical documents, and more. You can FTP the list in file `/pub/gnu/FreelyAvailableTexts' from from a GNU FTP host (listed in section How to Get GNU Software). Please let either address on the top menu know of additional entries.
Those that give up their freedom in the name of security deserve neither.
- Benjamin Franklin
Help the GNU Translation Project
GNU is going international! The GNU Translation Project will get maintainers, translators, and users all together, so GNU will gradually speak many native languages.
gettext tool set contains everything maintainers need
for internationalizing their packages for messages. It has quite useful
tools for helping translators add messages for their native
language, once a package has been internationalized.
To achieve the GNU Translation Project, we need many interested people who like their own language and write it well, and who are also able to synergize with other translators speaking the same language. If you'd like to volunteer to work at translating messages, please send mail to your translating team.
These teams exist, as of May 1995: Chinese (zh), Czech (cs), Danish (da), Dutch (nl), Esperanto (eo), Finnish (fi), French (fr), Irish (ga), German (de), Greek (el), Italian (it), Japanese (ja), Indonesian (in), Norwegian (no), Polish (pl), Portuguese (pt), Russian (ru), Spanish (es), Swedish (sv), & Turkish (tr). Each team has its own mailing list, courtesy of Linux International. You may reach your translating team at the address `email@example.com', replacing xx by the two-letter ISO 639 code for your language. Please note that language codes are not the same as country codes. When you become a member of the translating team for your own language, you may subscribe to its list. To subscribe, send a message with the message body `subscribe' to the appropriate list.
Team members should be interested in working at translations or at
solving translational difficulties, rather than merely lurking around. If
you want to start a new team, write
The GNU Project continues to build GUILE: GNUs' Ubiquitous Extension Language. We are building a library which programmers can use to make any ordinary C program extensible. We expect to use this library in many GNU programs and hope to see wide use elsewhere.
We are basing GUILE on SCM, a version of Scheme written by Aubrey Jaffer (see the JACAL item in section GNU Software). The interpreter has been repackaged as a C library. GUILE currently includes, with various degrees of completion, a Posix system-call interface, an SCSH-like library, a module system, a Tk interface, and a byte-code interpreter. Projects are underway to build into GUILE support for Emacs Lisp and for a more C-like language.
Since we want to encourage everyone to adopt a common interpreter, the copyright terms for GUILE will permit the use of the library even in proprietary programs. Get snapshots of GUILE from `ftp.cygnus.com:pub/lord'.
Information about the current status of released GNU programs can be found in section GNU Software. Here is some news of future plans.
- GNU C Library (For current status, see section GNU Software.)
While there has not been a new release of our C library since the January
GNU's Bulletin, Roland has been doing lots of work on it, with a focus on
support for the Hurd (see section What Is the Hurd?). Version 1.10 is in the
works; it adds several new functions traditionally found in Unix systems and
some small new GNU extensions. Ulrich Drepper has contributed to the
library a great deal in the last few months, by writing new floating-point
printing/reading functions that are perfectly accurate & much faster than
the old code. He has also written a whole set of internationalization
features including POSIX.2-compatible
localedefprograms & catalogs for displaying program messages in languages other than English. The library can now be built as a shared library for the Hurd & other systems using the ELF object file format. Included is the run-time loader
ld.sowhich sets up the shared libraries when a program runs; it works now on the Hurd and should be easy to port (using ELF) to GNU/Linux, SVR4 & Solaris 2.
- GNUStep (Also see item Objective-C Library
in section GNU Software)
OpenStep is an object-oriented application programming interface
specification being proposed as an open object standard. Since its
announcement over two years ago, there has been much interest in a GNU
implementation, named GNUStep. Work has begun on GNUStep using an existing
library written in Objective-C as a base. Much work remains to be done to
bring this library close to the OpenStep specifications. Volunteers should
Paul_Kunz@slac.stanford.edu. Check `http://fvkma.tu-graz.ac.at/gnustep/gnustep.html' for more info.
makeinfoand the World Wide Web (Also see section GNU Software)
makeinfois being modified to translate Texinfo source files into HTML documents that can be displayed on the Internet's World Wide Web.
- GNU Common Lisp (For current status, see section GNU Software)
Version 2.0 of GNU Common Lisp (GCL) was released in April '95. It now
includes a graphical interface with the TK widget system. All
documentation is now Texinfo-based, with built-in regexp matching
used to access the documentation. A first pass at the Common Lisp
condition system is also included. Work on installing the new compiler and
internals is underway, as well as a port to the DEC Alpha architecture.
Volunteers for parts of the move to the ANSI standard are most welcome;
- GNU Emacs (For current status, see section GNU Software) Future versions of Emacs will provide: saving the undo history in a file, so you can undo older changes in the history, support for both variable-width fonts and wide character sets, and support for the world's major languages. Our long term plan is to move it in the direction of a WYSIWYG word processor and make it easier for beginners to use.
- C Interpreter
We hope to add interpreter facilities to our compiler and debugger. This
task is partly finished. GCC has generated byte code for all supported
languages, but that support is in flux at this time. A new effort to
finish this work has begun. To make this work usable, we need to enhance
GDB to load the byte code dynamically. We also would like support for
compiling just a specified few functions in a file. Due to limited
resources, the FSF cannot fund this. Interested volunteers should contact
- GCC (For current status, see section GNU Software) New front ends for GCC are being developed for Pascal and Chill. See the GNU Fortran and GNAT items in this article for news on those front ends.
- GNAT: The GNU Ada Translator Not yet available from the FSF
A front end for much of Ada 95 (GNAT: The GNU Ada Translator) is available
via anonymous FTP from
cs.nyu.eduin `/pub/gnat'. News about GNAT is posted to the USENET newsgroup
- GNU Fortran (For info on
f2c& GCC, see section GNU Software) The GNU Fortran (
g77) front end is stable, but work is needed to bring its overall packaging, feature set, and performance up to the levels the Fortran community expects. Tasks to be done include: writing documentation; improving diagnostics; speeding up compilation, especially for large initialized data tables; implementing
INTEGER*8, and similar features; and arranging to build and install
libf2cautomatically. We don't know when these things will be done, but hope some will be finished in the coming months. You can speed progress by working on them or by offering funding. A mailing list exists for announcements about
g77. To subscribe, ask
firstname.lastname@example.org. To contact the developer of
g77or get current status, write or finger
- Ghostscript (For current status, see section GNU Software) Ghostscript 3.0 will be distributed by the FSF soon. It will implement nearly the full Postscript Level 2 language except for LZW compression, which can't be freely implemented because of software patents. (Prohibitions on programming like this are what the League for Programming Freedom is fighting. See section What Is the LPF?, for details.)
gmp(For current status, see section GNU Software) The GNU
mplibrary, version 2.0, will have arbitrary multiple precision floating point arithmetic, be more portable, and be up to 4 times faster than previous versions.
- Oleo (For current status, see section GNU Software) Volunteers are writing an Oleo manual and extensions to the Oleo interface.
- Smalltalk (For current status, see section GNU Software) The next release, version 1.2, will use the GNU Autoconf configuration. It will have significant performance improvements & memory requirement reductions, more control over the memory allocation, ability to use the Smalltalk interpreter as a subroutine (i.e., callable from C), better X Window System interfaces, ability to represent and manipulate C data structures in Smalltalk, conditional compilation facilities, large integer support, a complete GUI-based class browsing system, better (more complete/usable) TCP/IP interfaces, exception support, weak references, & finalization support.
All our software is available via FTP; see section How to Get GNU Software. We also offer software on various media and printed documentation:
- section CD-ROMs.
- section Tapes.
- section MS-DOS Diskettes.
- section GNU Documentation, which includes manuals and reference cards.
In these articles describing the contents of each medium, the version number listed after each program name was current when we published this Bulletin. When you order a distribution tape, diskette, or newer CD-ROM, some of the programs may be newer and therefore the version number higher. See the see section Free Software Foundation Order Form, for ordering information.
Some of the contents of our tape and FTP distributions are compressed. We
have software on our tapes and FTP sites to uncompress these files. Due to
patent troubles with
compress, we use another compression program,
gzip. (Such prohibitions on software development are fought by the
League for Programming Freedom, see section What Is the LPF?, for details.)
make is on several of our tapes because some system vendors
make utility at all and some native
VPATH feature essential for using the GNU configure system
to its full extent. The GNU
make sources have a shell script to
make itself on such systems.
We welcome all bug reports and enhancements sent to the appropriate electronic mailing list (see section Free Software Support).
Configuring GNU Software:
We are using a uniform scheme for configuring GNU software packages in order to compile them. It uses the Autoconf program (see item below, in this article). The goal is to have all GNU software support the same alternatives for naming machine and system types.
When the GNU system is complete, it will be possible to configure and build the entire system at once, eliminating the need to separately configure each individual package.
You can also specify both the host and target system to build cross-compilation tools. Most GNU programs now use Autoconf-generated configure scripts.
GNU Software currently available:
For future programs and features, see section Forthcoming GNUs.
Key to cross reference:
- Dec. 1994 Binaries CD-ROM
- Djgpp Diskettes
- MS-DOS Book with CD-ROM
- Emacs Diskettes
- Languages Tape
- 4.4BSD-Lite Tape
- Lisps/Emacs Tape
- Scheme Tape
- June 95 Source CD-ROM
- Selected Utilities Diskettes
- Utilities Tape
- VMS Compiler Tape
- VMS Emacs Tape
- Windows Diskette
- X11 Optional Tape
- X11 Required Tape
[FSFman] shows that we sell a manual for that package. [FSFrc] shows we sell a reference card for that package. To order them, see the see section Free Software Foundation Order Form. See section GNU Documentation for more information on the manuals. Source code for each manual or reference card is included with each package.
acmis a LAN-oriented, multiplayer aerial combat simulation that runs under the X Window System. Players engage in air to air combat against one another using heat seeking missiles and cannons. We are working on more accurate simulation of real airplane flight characteristics.
- Autoconf (SrcCD, UtilT)
Autoconf produces shell scripts which automatically configure source code
packages. These scripts adapt the packages to many kinds of Unix-like
systems without manual user intervention. Autoconf creates a script for a
package from a template file which lists the operating system features
which the package can use, in the form of
m4macro calls. Autoconf requires GNU
m4to operate, but the resulting configure scripts it generates do not.
- BASH (SrcCD, UtilT)
GNU's shell, BASH (Bourne Again SHell), is compatible with the
shand offers many extensions found in
ksh. BASH has job control,
csh-style command history, command-line editing (with Emacs and
vimodes built-in, and the ability to rebind keys) via the
readlinelibrary. BASH conforms to the POSIX 1003.2 shell specification.
bc(DjgpD, DosBC, SrcCD, UtilT)
bcis an interactive algebraic language with arbitrary precision numbers. GNU
bcfollows the POSIX.2-1992 standard, with several extensions including multi-character variable names, an
elsestatement, and full Boolean expressions. The RPN calculator
dcis now distributed as part of the same package, but GNU
bcis not implemented as a
- BFD (BinCD, DjgpD, DosBC, LangT, SrcCD)
The Binary File Descriptor library allows a program which
operates on object files (e.g.,
ldor GDB) to support many different formats in a clean way. BFD provides a portable interface, so that only BFD needs to know the details of a particular format. One result is that all programs using BFD will support formats such as a.out, COFF, and ELF. BFD comes with source for Texinfo documentation (not yet published on paper). Presently BFD is not distributed separately; it is included with packages that use it.
- Binutils (BinCD, DjgpD, DosBC, LangT, SrcCD)
Binutils includes these programs:
strip. Binutils Version 2 uses the BFD library. GNU's linker
ldemits source-line numbered error messages for multiply-defined symbols & undefined references, & interprets a superset of AT&T's Linker Command Language, which gives control over where segments are placed in memory.
nlmconvconverts object files into Novell NetWare Loadable Modules.
objdumpcan disassemble code for a29k, ALPHA, H8/300, H8/500, HP-PA, i386, i960, m68k, m88k, MIPS, SH, SPARC & Z8000 CPUs, & can display other data (e.g., symbols & relocations) from any file format read by BFD.
- Bison (BinCD,DjgpD,DosBC,LangT,SrcCD,VMSCmpT)[FSFman,FSFrc]
Bison is an upwardly compatible replacement for the parser generator
yacc. Texinfo source for the Bison Manual and reference card are included. See section GNU Documentation. A recent policy change allows non-free programs to use Bison-generated parsers. See section GNUs Flashes.
- GNU C Library (BinCD, LangT, SrcCD) [FSFman]
The GNU C library supports ANSI C-1989, POSIX 1003.1-1990 and most of the
functions in POSIX 1003.2-1992. It is upwardly compatible with 4.4BSD and
includes many System V functions, plus GNU extensions.
The C Library performs many functions of the Unix system calls in
the Hurd. Mike Haertel has written a fast
mallocwhich wastes less memory than the old GNU version. The GNU regular-expression functions (
rx) now nearly conform to the POSIX 1003.2 standard. GNU
stdiolets you define new kinds of streams, just by writing a few C functions. The
fmemopenfunction uses this to open a stream on a string, which can grow as necessary. You can define your own
printfformats to use a C function you have written. For example, you can safely use format strings from user input to implement a
printf-like function for another programming language. Extended
getoptfunctions are already used to parse options, including long options, in many GNU utilities. The C Library runs on Sun-3 (SunOS 4.1), Sun-4 (SunOS 4.1 or Solaris 2), HP 9000/300 (4.3BSD), SONY News 800 (NewsOS 3 or 4), MIPS DECstation (Ultrix 4), DEC Alpha (OSF/1), i386/i486 (System V, SVR4, BSD, SCO 3.2 & SCO ODT 2.0), Sequent Symmetry i386 (Dynix 3) & SGI (Irix 4). Texinfo source for the GNU C Library Reference Manual is included (see section GNU Documentation); the manual is now being updated.
- GNU C++ Library (BinCD, DjgpD, DosBC, LangT, SrcCD) The GNU C++ library (libg++) contains an extensive collection of C++ forest classes, an IOStream library for input/output routines, and support tools for use with G++. Supported classes include: Obstacks, multiple-precision Integers and Rationals, Complex numbers, arbitrary length Strings, BitSets, and BitStrings. Version 2.6.2 includes the initial release of the libstdc++ library. This implements library facilities defined by the forthcoming ANSI/ISO C++ standard, including the Standard Template Library.
- Calc (DosBC, LspEmcT, SrcCD) [FSFman, FSFrc]
Calc (written by Dave Gillespie in Emacs Lisp) is an extensible, advanced
desk calculator & mathematical tool that runs as part of GNU Emacs. You
can use Calc just as a simple four-function calculator, but it has many
more features including: choice of algebraic or RPN (stack-based) entry;
logarithmic, trigonometric & financial functions; arbitrary precision;
complex numbers; vectors; matrices; dates; times; infinities; sets;
algebraic simplification; differentiation & integration. It outputs to
gnuplot, & comes with source for a reference card & a manual. See section GNU Documentation.
cfengineis used for maintaining site-wide configuration of a heterogeneous Unix network using a simple high level language. Its functionality is similar to
rdist, but also allows many more operations to be performed automatically.
- GNU Chess (SrcCD, UtilT, WdwsD)
GNU Chess lets the computer play a full game of chess with you. It runs on
most platforms & has dumb terminal, "curses", & X terminal interfaces
(based on the
xboardprogram). GNU Chess has many special features including the null move heuristic, a hash table with aging, the history heuristic (another form of the earlier killer heuristic), caching of static evaluations, & a database which lets it play the first several moves of the game quickly. Recent improvements include better heuristics, faster evaluation, thinking on opponent's time, a perfect King and Pawn vs King endgame routine, Swedish & German language support, support for more book formats, a rudimentary Bobby Fischer clock, & bug fixes. It is primarily supported by Stuart Cracraft, Chua Kong Sian, & Tim Mann on behalf of the FSF.
- CLISP (LspEmcT, SrcCD) CLISP is a Common Lisp implementation by Bruno Haible and Michael Stoll. It mostly supports the Lisp described by Common LISP: The Language (2nd edition) and the ANSI Common Lisp standard. CLISP includes an interpreter, a byte-compiler, a large subset of CLOS, a foreign language interface and, for some machines, a screen editor. The user interface language (English, German, French) is chooseable at run time. Major packages that run in CLISP include CLX & Garnet. CLISP needs only 2 MB of memory & runs on many microcomputers (including MS-DOS systems, OS/2, Atari ST, Amiga 500--4000, Acorn RISC PC) & Unix-like systems (GNU/Linux, Sun4, SVR4, SGI, HP-UX, DEC Alpha, NeXTstep & others).
- GNU Common Lisp (LspEmcT, SrcCD) GNU Common Lisp (GCL) has a compiler and interpreter for Common Lisp. It used to be known as Kyoto Common Lisp. It is very portable and extremely efficient on a wide class of applications. It compares favorably in performance with commercial Lisps on several large theorem--prover and symbolic algebra systems. It supports the CLtL1 specification but is moving towards the proposed ANSI definition. GCL compiles to C and then uses the native optimizing C compilers (e.g., GCC). A function with a fixed number of args and one value turns into a C function of the same number of args, returning one value, so GCL is maximally efficient on such calls. It has a conservative garbage collector which allows great freedom for the C compiler to put Lisp values in arbitrary registers. It has a source level Lisp debugger for interpreted code, with display of source code in an Emacs window. Its profiling tools (based on the C profiling tools) count function calls and the time spent in each function. CLX works with GCL. There is now a built-in interface with the TK widget system. It runs in a separate process so that users may monitor progress on Lisp computations or interact with running computations via a windowing interface. There is also an Xlib interface via C (xgcl-2). PCL runs with GCL (see PCL item later in this article). See section Forthcoming GNUs, for plans regarding GCL or for recent developments. GCL version 2.0 is released under the GNU Library General Public License.
cpio(DjgpD, DosBC, SrcCD, UtilD, UtilT)
cpiois an alternative archive program with all the features of SVR4
cpio, including support for the final POSIX 1003.1 ustar standard.
mt, a program to position magnetic tapes, is included with
- CVS (SrcCD, UtilT)
CVS, the Concurrent Version System, manages software revision & release
control at a multi-developer, multi-directory, multi-group site. It
works best with RCS versions 4 and above, but will parse older RCS formats
with the loss of CVS's fancier features. See Berliner, Brian, "CVS-II:
Parallelizing Software Development," Proceedings of the Winter 1990
USENIX Association Conference. To find out how to get a copy, contact
- DejaGnu (LangT, SrcCD)
DejaGnu is a framework to test programs with a single front end for all
tests. The framework's flexibility & consistency makes it easy to write
DejaGnu comes with
expect, which runs scripts to conduct dialogs with programs.
- Diffutils (DjgpD, DosBC, SrcCD, UtilT)
diffcompares files showing line-by-line changes in several flexible formats. It is much faster than traditional Unix versions. The Diffutils package contains
cmp. Recent improvements include more consistent handling of character sets and a new
diffoption to do all input/output in binary; this is useful on some non-Posix hosts. Plans for the Diffutils package include support for internationalization (e.g., error messages in Chinese) and for some non-Unix PC environments.
- DJGPP (BinCD, DjgpD, DosBC)
DJ Delorie has ported GCC/G++ 2.6.0 (see "GCC" in this article)
to i386s running MS-DOS. DJGPP also has a 32-bit
i386 DOS extender with symbolic debugger; development libraries; & ports
flex, GAS & Binutils. Full source code is provided. It needs at least 5MB of hard disk space to install & 512K of RAM to use. It supports SVGA (up to 1024x768), XMS & VDISK memory allocation,
himem.sys, VCPI (e.g., QEMM, DESQview & 386MAX) & DPMI (e.g., Windows 3.x, OS/2, QEMM & QDPMI). Ask
email@example.com join a DJGPP users mailing list.
dldis a dynamic linker written by W. Wilson Ho. Linking your program with the
dldlibrary allows you to dynamically load object files into the running binary. Currently supported are VAX (Ultrix), Sun 3 (SunOS 3.4 & 4.0), SPARC (SunOS 4.0), Sequent Symmetry (Dynix) & Atari ST.
doschk(DjgpD, DosBC, SrcCD, UtilT) This program is intended as a utility to help software developers ensure that their source file names are distinguishable on System V platforms with 14-character filenames and on MS-DOS with 8+3 character filenames.
eccis a Reed-Solomon error correction checking program, which can correct three byte errors in a block of 255 bytes and detect more severe errors. Contact
paulf@Stanford.EDUfor more information.
ed(SrcCD, UtilT) Ed is the standard text editor.
- Elib (DosBC, LspEmcT, SrcCD) Elib is a small library of Emacs Lisp functions, including routines for using AVL trees and doubly-linked lists.
- GNU Emacs See section Forthcoming GNUs for future plans. In 1975, Richard Stallman developed the first Emacs, an extensible, customizable real-time display editor & computing environment. GNU Emacs is his second implementation. It offers true Lisp--smoothly integrated into the editor--for writing extensions & provides an interface to the X Window System. It also runs on MS-DOS & Windows NT. In addition to its powerful native command set, Emacs has extensions which emulate the editors vi & EDT (DEC's VMS editor). Emacs has many other features which make it a full computing support environment. Source for the GNU Emacs Manual, & a reference card comes with the software. Source for the GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual & Programming in Emacs Lisp: An Introduction are distributed in separate packages. See section GNU Documentation.
- GNU Emacs 18 (LspEmcT, SrcCD, VMSEmcsT) [FSFrc] Emacs 18.59 is the last release of version 18 from the FSF. We no longer maintain it. It runs on many Unix systems: Alliant FX/80 & FX/2800, Altos 3068, Amdahl (UTS), Apollo, AT&T (3Bs & 7300 PC), DG Aviion, Bull DPX/2 (2nn & 3nn) CCI 5/32 & 6/32, Celerity, Convex, Digital (DECstation 3100 & 5000 (PMAXes), Mips, VAX (BSD, SysV & VMS)), Motorola Delta 147 & 187, Dual, Elxsi 6400, Encore (DPC, APC & XPC), Gould, HP (9000 series 200, 300, 700 & 800, but not 500), HLH Orion (original & 1/05), IBM (RS/6000 (AIX), RT/PC (4.2 & AIX) & PS/2 (AIX (386 only))), ISI (Optimum V, 80386), Intel 860 & 80386 (BSD, Esix, SVR3, SVR4, SCO, ISC, IX, AIX, et al.), Iris (2500, 2500 Turbo & 4D), Masscomp, MIPS, National Semiconductor 32000, NeXT (Mach), NCR Tower 32 (SVR2 & SVR3), Nixdorf Targon 31, Nu (TI & LMI), pfa50, Plexus, Prime EXL, Pyramid (original & MIPS), Sequent (Balance & Symmetry), SONY News (m68k & MIPS), Stride (system rel. 2), all Suns including 386i (all SunOS & some Solaris vers.), Tadpole, Tahoe, Tandem Integrity S2, Tektronix (16000 & 4300), Triton 88, Ustation E30 (SS5E), Whitechapel (MG1) & Wicat.
- GNU Emacs 19 (DosBC, EmacsD, LspEmcT, SrcCD) [FSFman(s), FSFrc] Emacs 19 works with character-only terminals & with the X Window System (with or without the X toolkit). New features in Emacs 19 include: multiple X windows ("frames" to Emacs), with either a separate X window for the minibuffer or a minibuffer attached to each X window; property lists associated with regions of text in a buffer; multiple fonts & colors defined by those properties; simplified/improved processing of function keys, mouse clicks, & mouse movement; X selection processing, including clipboard selections; hooks to be run if point or mouse moves outside a certain range; menu bars & popup menus defined by keymaps; scrollbars; before & after change hooks; source-level debugging of Emacs Lisp programs; floating point numbers; improved buffer allocation, including returning storage to the system when a buffer is killed; interfacing with the X resource manager; many updated libraries; & support for European character sets, RCS, & the GNU configuration scheme. Recent features include support for Motif widgets & the Athena widgets, displaying multiple views of an outline at the same time, version control support for CVS & for multiple branches, the ability to open frames on more than one X display from a single Emacs job, operation on MS-DOS, MS Windows, & Windows NT, commands to edit text properties & save them in files, text properties for formatting text, & GNU-standard long-named command line options. Emacs 19.29 is believed to work on: Acorn Risc machine (RISCiX); Alliant FX/2800 (BSD); Alpha (OSF/1); Apollo (DomainOS); Bull DPX/2 2nn & 3nn (SysV.3) & sps7 (SysV.2); Clipper; Convex (BSD); Cubix QBx (SysV); Data General Aviion (DGUX); DEC MIPS (Ultrix 4.2 & OSF/1, not VMS); Elxsi 6400 (SysV); Gould Power Node & NP1 (4.2 & 4.3BSD); Harris Night Hawk 1200 & 3000, 4000 & 5000 (cxux); Honeywell XPS100 (SysV); HP 9000 series 200, 300, 700, 800 (but not 500) (4.3BSD or HP-UX 7, 8, 9); Intel i386, i486 & Pentium (GNU/Linux, 386BSD, AIX, BSDI/386, FreeBSD, Esix, ISC, MS-DOS (see section MS-DOS Diskettes & section MS-DOS Book with CD-ROM), NetBSD, SCO3.2v4, SysV, Xenix, WindowsNT); IBM RS6000 (AIX 3.2); IBM RT/PC (AIX or BSD); Motorola Delta 147 & 187 (SysV.3, SysV.4 & m88kbcs); National Semiconductor 32K (Genix); NeXT (BSD or Mach 2 w/ NeXTStep 3.0); Paragon (OSF/1); Prime EXL (SysV); Pyramid (BSD); Sequent Symmetry (BSD, ptx); Siemens RM400 & RM600 (SysV); SGI Iris 4D (Irix 4.x & 5.x); Sony News/RISC (NewsOS); Stardent i860 (SysV); Sun 3 & 4, SPARC 1, 1+, 2, 10 & Classic (SunOS 4.0, 4.1, Solaris 2.0--2.3); Tadpole 68k (SysV); Tektronix XD88 (SysV.3) & 4300 (BSD); & Titan P2 & P3 (SysV). Other configurations supported by Emacs 18 should work with few changes in Emacs 19; as users tell us more about their experiences with different systems, we will augment the list. Also see section Forthcoming GNUs.
esis an extensible shell based on
rcwith first class functions, lexical scope, exceptions and rich return values (i.e., functions can return values other than just numbers).
es's extensibility comes from the ability to modify and extend the shell's built-in services, such as path searching and redirection. Like
rc, it is great for both interactive use and for scripting, particularly since its quoting rules are much less baroque than the C or Bourne shells.
f2cconverts Fortran-77 source into C or C++, which can be compiled with GCC or G++. Get bug fixes by FTP from site
netlib.att.comor by email from
firstname.lastname@example.org. See file `/netlib/f2c/changes.Z' for a summary. See section Forthcoming GNUs, for info about GNU Fortran.
- Fileutils (DjgpD, DosBC, SrcCD, UtilT)
The fileutils work on files:
- Findutils (DjgpD, DosBC, SrcCD, UtilT)
findis frequently used both interactively and in shell scripts to find files which match certain criteria and perform arbitrary operations on them. Also included are
xargs, which apply a command to a list of files, and
locate, which scans a database for file names that match a pattern.
- Finger (SrcCD, UtilT) GNU Finger has more features than other finger programs. For sites with many hosts, a single host may be designated as the finger server host and other hosts at that site configured as finger clients. The server host collects information about who is logged in to the clients. To finger a user at a GNU Finger site, a query to any of its client hosts gets useful information. GNU Finger supports many customization features, including user output filters and site programmable output for special target names.
flex(BinCD, DjgpD, DosBC, LangT, SrcCD, UtilD) [FSFman, FSFrc]
flexis a replacement for the
flexwas written by Vern Paxson of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and generates far more efficient scanners than
lexdoes. Source for the Flex Manual and reference card are included. See section GNU Documentation.
- FlexFAX See the HylaFAX item elsewhere in this article
- GNU Fortran (
g77) See section Forthcoming GNUs (LangT, SrcCD) GNU Fortran (
g77), developed by Craig Burley, is available for public beta testing on the Internet. For now,
g77produces code that is mostly object-compatible with
f2c& uses the same run-time library (
- Fontutils (SrcCD, UtilT)
xbfe) create fonts for use with Ghostscript or TeX (starting with a scanned type image & converting the bitmaps to outlines), convert between font formats, et al.
- GAWK (DjgpD, DosBC, LangT, SrcCD) [FSFman]
GAWK is upwardly compatible with the latest POSIX specification of
awk. It also provides several useful extensions not found in other
awkimplementations. Texinfo source for the GAWK Manual comes with the software. See section GNU Documentation.
- GCC (BinCD, DjgpD, DosBC, LangT, SrcCD, VMSCmpT) [FSFman]
Version 2 of the GNU C Compiler supports multiple languages; the source
file name suffix or a compiler option selects the language. The GNU C
Compiler distribution includes support for C, C++ and Objective-C.
Support for Objective-C was donated by NeXT. The runtime support needed to
run Objective-C programs is now distributed with GCC (this does not include
any Objective-C classes aside from
object). As much as possible, G++ is kept compatible with the evolving draft ANSI standard, but not with
cfront(AT&T's compiler), which has been diverging from ANSI. The GNU C Compiler is a fairly portable optimizing compiler which performs automatic register allocation, common sub-expression elimination, invariant code motion from loops, induction variable optimizations, constant propagation and copy propagation, delayed popping of function call arguments, tail recursion elimination, integration of inline functions and frame pointer elimination, instruction scheduling, loop unrolling, filling of delay slots, leaf function optimization, optimized multiplication by constants, a certain amount of common subexpression elimination (CSE) between basic blocks (though not all of the supported machine descriptions provide for scheduling or delay slots), a feature for assigning attributes to instructions and many local optimizations that are automatically deduced from the machine description. Position-independent code is supported on the 68k, i386, i486, Pentium, Hitachi Slt, Hitachi H8/300, Clipper, 88k, SPARC & SPARClite. GCC can open-code most arithmetic on 64-bit values (type
long long int). It supports extended floating point (type
long double) on the 68k; other machines will follow. GCC supports full ANSI C, traditional C, & GNU C extensions (including: nested functions support, nonlocal gotos, & taking the address of a label). GCC can generate a.out, COFF, ELF, & OSF-Rose files when used with a suitable assembler. It can produce debugging information in these formats: BSD stabs, COFF, ECOFF, ECOFF with stabs & DWARF. GCC generates code for many CPUs, including: a29k, Alpha, ARM, AT&T DSP1610, Convex cN, Clipper, Elxsi, Fujitsu Gmicro, H8/300, HP--PA (1.0 and 1.1) i370, i386, i486, Pentium, i860, i960, m68k, m68020, m68030, m68040, m88k, MIL-STD-1750a, MIPS, ns32k, PDP-11, Pyramid, ROMP, RS6000, SH, SPARC, SPARClite, VAX & we32k. Operating systems supported include: GNU/Linux, AIX, ACIS, AOS, BSD, Clix, Ctix, DG/UX, Dynix, Genix, GNU, HP-UX, ISC, Irix, Luna, LynxOS, Mach, Minix, NetBSD, NewsOS, OSF, OSF-Rose, RISCOS, SCO, Solaris 2, SunOS 4, SysV, Ultrix, Unos, VMS & Windows/NT. Using the configuration scheme for GCC, building a cross-compiler is as easy as building a native compiler. We no longer maintain version 1 of GCC, G++, or libg++. Texinfo source for the Using and Porting GNU CC manual, is included with GCC. See section Forthcoming GNUs, for plans for later releases of GCC.
- GDB (BinCD, DjgpD, DosBC, LangT, SrcCD) [FSFman, FSFrc]
GDB, the GNU DeBugger, is a source-level debugger for C,
C++, & Fortran.
GDB can debug both C and C++ programs, and will work with executables
produced by many different compilers; however, C++ debugging will have
some limitations if you do not use GCC.
GDB has a command line user interface; Emacs comes with a GDB mode, and
xxgdbprovides an X interface (but it is not distributed or maintained by the FSF; FTP it from
ftp.x.orgin directory `/contrib/utilities'). Executable files and symbol tables are read via the BFD library, which allows a single copy of GDB to debug programs with multiple object file formats (e.g., a.out, COFF, ELF). Other features include a rich command language, remote debugging over serial lines or TCP/IP, and watchpoints (breakpoints triggered when the value of an expression changes). GDB uses a standard remote interface to a simulator library which (so far) has simulators for the Zilog Z8001/2, Hitachi H8/300, H8/500, & Super-H. GDB can perform cross-debugging. To say that GDB targets a platform means it can perform native or cross-debugging for it. To say that GDB can host a given platform means that it can be built on it, but cannot necessarily debug native programs. GDB can:
- target & host: Amiga 3000 (Amix), DEC Alpha (OSF/1), DECstation 3100 & 5000 (Ultrix), HP 9000/300 (BSD, HP-UX), HP 9000/700 (HP-UX), i386 (GNU/Linux, BSD, FreeBSD, LynxOS, NetBSD, SCO), IBM RS/6000 (AIX, LynxOS), Motorola Delta m88k (System V, CX/UX), PC532 (NetBSD), Motorola m68k MVME-167 (LynxOS), NCR 3000 (SVR4), SGI (Irix V3, V4, V5), SONY News (NewsOS 3.x), SPARC (SunOS 4.1, Solaris, NetBSD, LynxOS) Sun-3 (SunOS 4.1), & Ultracomputer (a29k running Sym1).
- target, but not host: AMD 29000 (COFF & a.out), Hitachi H8/300, Hitachi SH, i386 (a.out, COFF, OS/9000) i960 (Nindy, VxWorks), m68k/m68332 (a.out, COFF, VxWorks), MIPS (IDT ecoff, ELF), Fujitsu SPARClite (a.out, COFF), & Z8000.
- host, but not target: IBM RT/PC (AIX), and HP/Apollo 68k (BSD).
gdbm(LangT, SrcCD, UtilD)
gdbmis the GNU replacement for the traditional
ndbmlibraries. It implements a database using quick lookup by hashing.
gdbmdoes not ordinarily make sparse files (unlike its Unix and BSD counterparts).
- Ghostscript (DjgpD, DosBC, SrcCD, UtilT)
The GNU release of Ghostscript is an interpreter for the Postscript graphics
language (see section Forthcoming GNUs, for future plans).
The current version of GNU Ghostscript is 2.6.2. Features include the ability
to use the fonts provided by the platform on which Ghostscript runs (X
Window System and Microsoft Windows), resulting in much better-looking
screen displays; improved text file printing (like
enscript); a utility to extract the text from a Postscript language document; a much more reliable (and faster) Microsoft Windows implementation; support for Microsoft C/C++ 7.0; drivers for many new printers, including the SPARCprinter, and for TIFF/F (fax) file format; many more Postscript Level 2 facilities, including most of the color space facilities (but not patterns), and the ability to switch between Level 1 and Level 2 dynamically. Version 2.6.2 adds a LaserJet 4 driver and several important bug fixes to version 2.6.1. Ghostscript executes commands in the Postscript language by writing directly to a printer, drawing on an X window or writing to a file for later printing (or to a bitmap file that you can manipulate with other graphics programs). Ghostscript includes a C-callable graphics library (for client programs that do not want to deal with the Postscript language). It also supports IBM PCs and compatibles with EGA, VGA or SuperVGA graphics (but please do not ask the FSF staff any questions about this; we do not use PCs).
- Ghostview (DjgpD, DosBC, SrcCD, UtilT)
email@example.com, created Ghostview, a previewer for multi-page files with an X user interface. Ghostview & Ghostscript work together; Ghostview creates a viewing window & Ghostscript draws in it.
- GIT (SrcCD, UtilT) GIT is a set of interactive tools. It has an extensible file system browser, an ASCII/hex file viewer, a process viewer/killer, and other related utilities and shell scripts. It can be used to increase the speed and efficiency of many daily tasks, such as copying and moving files and directories, invoking editors, compressing and uncompressing files, creating and expanding archives, compiling programs, sending mail, etc. It looks nice, has colors (if the standard ANSI color sequences are supported), and is user-friendly.
gmp(LangT, SrcCD) GNU
mpis a library for arbitrary precision arithmetic on signed integers and rational numbers. It has a rich set of functions with a regular interface.
- GNATS (SrcCD, UtilT) GNATS (GNats: A Tracking System, not to be confused with GNAT, The GNU Ada Translator) is a bug-tracking system. It is based upon the paradigm of a central site or organization which receives problem reports and negotiates their resolution by electronic mail. Although it has been used primarily as a software bug-tracking system so far, it is sufficiently generalized so that it could be used for handling system administration issues, project management, or any number of other applications.
gnuplot(SrcCD, UtilT, WdwsD)
gnuplotis an interactive program for plotting mathematical expressions and data. It plots both curves (2 dimensions) & surfaces (3 dimensions). Curiously, it was neither written nor named for the GNU Project; the name is a coincidence. Various GNU programs use
- GnuGo (SrcCD, UtilT) GnuGo plays the game of Go (Wei-Chi); it is not yet very sophisticated.
gperfgenerates perfect hash tables. The C version is in package cperf. The C++ version is in libg++. Both produce hash functions in either C or C++.
- GNU Graphics (SrcCD, UtilT)
GNU Graphics produces x-y plots from ASCII or binary
data. It outputs in Postscript, Tektronix 4010 compatible, and Unix
device-independent "plot" formats. It has a previewer for the X Window
System. Features include a
splineinterpolation program; examples of shell scripts using
plot; a statistics toolkit; and output in TekniCAD TDA and ln03 file formats. Email bugs or queries to Rich Murphey,
- grep (DjgpD, DosBC, SrcCD, UtilT)
This package has GNU
fgrepwhich find lines that match inputed patterns. They are much faster than the traditional Unix versions.
- Groff (DjgpD, DosBC, SrcCD, UtilT)
Groff is a document formatting system based on a device-independent troff &
mmmacros; & drivers for Postscript, TeX
dviformat and typewriter-like devices. Groff's
mmmacro package is almost compatible with the DWB
mmmacros with several extensions. Also included is a modified version of the Berkeley
memacros and an enhanced version of the X11
xditviewpreviewer. Written in C++, these programs can be compiled with GNU C++ Version 2.5 or later. A driver for the LaserJet 4 series of printers is currently in test. Groff users are encouraged to contribute enhancements. Most needed are complete Texinfo documentation, a
picpreprocessor for typesetting graphs), a page-makeup postprocessor similar to
pm(see Computing Systems, Vol. 2, No. 2; ask
firstname.lastname@example.org to get a copy), and an ASCII output class for
piccan be integrated with Texinfo. Questions and bug reports from users who have read the documentation provided with groff can be sent to
gzip(DjgpD, DosBC, LangT, LspEmcT, SrcCD, UtilT)
gzipcan expand LZW-compressed files but uses another, unpatented algorithm for compression which generally produces better results. It also expands files compressed with System V's
hello(DjgpD, DosBC, SrcCD, UtilT) The GNU
helloprogram produces a familiar, friendly greeting. It allows non-programmers to use a classic computer science tool which would otherwise be unavailable to them. Because it is protected by the GNU General Public License, users are free to share and change it. Like any truly useful program,
hellocontains a built-in mail reader.
hp2xx(SrcCD, UtilT) GNU
hp2xxreads HP-GL files, decomposes all drawing commands into elementary vectors, and converts them into a variety of vector and raster output formats. It is also an HP-GL previewer. Currently supported vector formats include encapsulated Postscript, Uniplex RGIP, Metafont, and various special TeX-related formats, and simplified HP-GL (line drawing only) for imports. Raster formats supported include IMG, PBM, PCX & HP-PCL (including Deskjet & DJ5xxC support). Previewers work under X11 (Unix), OS/2 (PM & full screen), MS-DOS (SVGA, VGA & HGC).
- HylaFAX (SrcCD, UtilT) HylaFAX (once named FlexFAX) is a facsimile system for Unix systems. It supports sending, receiving, & polled retrieval of facsimile, as well as transparent shared data use of the modem. Details are available on the World Wide Web at: `http://www.vix.com/hylafax/'.
indent(DjgpD, DosBC, LangT, SrcCD, UtilD) GNU
indentis a revision of the BSD version. By default, it formats C source according to the GNU coding standards. The BSD default, K&R, and other formats are available as options. It is also possible to define your own format. GNU
indentis more robust and provides more functionality than other versions, for example, it handles C++ comments.
- Ispell (DjgpD, DosBC, SrcCD, UtilT) Ispell is an interactive spell checker that suggests "near misses" to replace unrecognized words. System & user-maintained dictionaries for multiple languages can be used. Standalone & Emacs interfaces are available. Previously, the FSF had its own version of ispell ("Ispell 4.0"), but has dropped it for a parallel branch that has had more development ("Ispell 3.1.18"). (Ispell 3 was an earlier release by the original Ispell author, but others have since made it more sophisticated.)
- JACAL Not available from the FSF except by FTP
JACAL is a symbolic mathematics system for the manipulation/simplification
of equations, single & multiple-valued algebraic expressions made up of
numbers, variables, radicals, differential operators, & algebraic &
holonomic functions. Vectors, matrices, & tensors of these objects are
JACAL was written in Scheme by Aubrey Jaffer. It comes with SCM, an IEEE
P1178 & R4RS compliant version of Scheme written in C. SCM runs on
Amiga, Atari-ST, MS-DOS, OS/2, NOS/VE, Unicos, VMS, Unix & similar
systems. SLIB is a portable Scheme library used by JACAL.
The FSF is not distributing JACAL on any media. To get an IBM PC floppy
disk with the freely redistributable source & executable files, send
Aubrey Jaffer 84 Pleasant Street Wakefield, MA 01880-1846 USA
less(SrcCD, UtilD, UtilT)
lessis a display paginator similar to
pgbut with various features (such as the ability to scroll backwards) that most pagers lack.
m4(DjgpD, DosBC, SrcCD, UtilD, UtilT) GNU
m4is an implementation of the traditional Unix macro processor. It is mostly SVR4 compatible, although it has some extensions (e.g., handling more than 9 positional parameters to macros).
m4also has built-in functions for including files, running shell commands, doing arithmetic, etc.
makesupports POSIX 1003.2 and has all but a few obscure features of the BSD and System V versions of
make. GNU extensions include long options, parallel compilation, flexible implicit pattern rules, conditional execution, & powerful text manipulation functions. Texinfo source for the Make Manual comes with the program. See section GNU Documentation.
- MandelSpawn (SrcCD, UtilT) A parallel Mandelbrot generation program for the X Window System.
mkisofsis a pre-mastering program to generate an ISO 9660 file system. It takes a snapshot of a directory tree, and makes a binary image which corresponds to an ISO 9660 file system when written to a block device.
mkisofscan also generate the System Use Sharing Protocol records of the Rock Ridge Interchange Protocol (used to further describe the files in an ISO 9660 file system to a Unix host, and provides information such as longer filenames, uid/gid, POSIX permissions, and block and character devices).
- mtools (SrcCD, UtilT) mtools is a set of public domain programs to allow Unix systems to read, write, and manipulate files on an MS-DOS file system (usually a diskette).
- MULE (DosBC, EmcsD, LspEmcT, SrcCD) MULE is a MULtilingual Enhancement to GNU Emacs. A text buffer in MULE can contain a mix of characters from many languages including: Japanese, Chinese, Korean, Vietnamese, Thai, Greek, the ISO Latin-1 through Latin-5 character sets, Ukrainian, Arabic, Hebrew, Russian, and other Cyrillic alphabets. To input any of these characters, you can use various input methods provided by MULE itself. In addition, if you use MULE under some terminal emulators (kterm, cxterm, or exterm), you can use its input methods. MULE is being merged into GNU Emacs. See section GNU & Other Free Software in Japan, for more information about MULE.
ncursesis an implementation of the Unix
curseslibrary for developing screen based programs that are terminal independent.
- NetHack (SrcCD, UtilT) NetHack is a Rogue-like adventure game supporting both ASCII & X displays.
- NIH Class Library (LangT, SrcCD) The NIH Class Library (once known as "OOPS", Object-Oriented Program Support) is a portable collection of C++ classes, similar to those in Smalltalk-80, written in C++ by Keith Gorlen of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
nviis a free implementation of the
exUnix editor. It has most of the functionality of the original
ex, except "open" mode & the
lispoption, which will be added. Enhancements over
exinclude split screens with multiple buffers, handling 8-bit data, infinite file & line lengths, tag stacks, infinite undo & extended regular expressions. It runs under GNU/Linux, BSD, NetBSD, FreeBSD, BSDI, AIX, HP-UX, DGUX, IRIX, PSF, PTX, Solaris, SunOS, Ultrix, Unixware & should port easily to many other systems.
- GNU Objective-C Library (LangT, SrcCD)
Our Objective-C Class Library (
libobjects) has general-purpose, non-graphical Objective-C objects written by Andrew McCallum & other volunteers. It includes collection classes for using groups of objects & C types, I/O streams, coders for formatting objects & C types to streams, ports for network packet transmission, distributed objects (remote object messaging), string classes, pseudo-random number generators & time handling facilities. It will also include the foundation classes for the GNUStep project; over 50 of them have already been implemented. The library is known to work on i386, i486, Pentium, m68k, SPARC, MIPS & RS6000. Send queries & bug reports to
OBSTis a persistent object management system with bindings to C++.
OBSTsupports incremental loading of methods. Its graphical tools require the X Window System. It features a hands-on tutorial including sample programs. It compiles with G++, and should install easily on most Unix platforms.
- Octave (LangT, SrcCD)
Octave is a high-level language similar to MATLAB, primarily
intended for numerical computations. It has a convenient command
line interface for solving linear & nonlinear problems numerically.
Octave does arithmetic for real & complex scalars & matrices,
solves sets of nonlinear algebraic equations,
integrates systems of ordinary differential & differential-algebraic
& integrates functions over finite & infinite intervals.
Two- & three-dimensional plotting is available using
gnuplot. Send queries & bug reports to:
email@example.com. Texinfo source is included for a 220+ page Octave manual, not yet published by the FSF.
- Oleo Also see section Forthcoming GNUs (SrcCD, UtilT) Oleo is a spreadsheet program (better for you than the more expensive spreadsheets). It supports the X Window System and character-based terminals, and can output Embedded Postscript renditions of spreadsheets. Keybindings should be familiar to Emacs users and are configurable. Under X and in Postscript output, Oleo supports multiple, variable-width fonts.
p2cis Dave Gillespie's Pascal-to-C translator. It inputs many dialects (HP, ISO, Turbo, VAX, et al.) & produces readable, maintainable, portable C.
patch(DjgpD, DosBC, SrcCD, UtilT)
patchis our version of Larry Wall's program to take
diff's output and apply those differences to an original file to generate the modified version.
- PCL (LspEmcT, SrcCD) PCL is a free implementation of a large subset of CLOS, the Common Lisp Object System. It runs under both GCL and CLISP, mentioned above.
perl(LangT, SrcCD) Larry Wall's
perlcombines the features and capabilities of
sh, and C, as well as interfaces to the Unix system calls and many C library routines.
pineis a friendly, menu-driven electronic mail manager.
ptx(SrcCD, UtilD, UtilT) GNU
ptxis our version of the traditional permuted index generator. It handles multiple input files at once, produces TeX compatible output, & outputs readable KWIC (KeyWords In Context) indexes. It does not yet handle input files that do not fit in memory all at once.
rcis a shell that features a C-like syntax (much more so than
csh) and far cleaner quoting rules than the C or Bourne shells. It's intended to be used interactively, but is also great for writing scripts. It inspired the shell
- RCS (SrcCD, UtilD, UtilT)
RCS, the Revision Control System, is used for version control &
management of software projects. Used with GNU
diff, RCS can handle binary files (executables, object files, 8-bit data, etc). Also see the CVS item above.
recode(SrcCD, UtilT) GNU
recodeconverts files between character sets and usages. When exact transliterations are not possible, it may get rid of the offending characters or fall back on approximations. This program recognizes or produces nearly 150 different character sets and is able to transliterate files between almost any pair. Most RFC 1345 character sets are supported.
regex(LangT, SrcCD) The GNU regular expression library supports POSIX.2, except for internationalization features. It is included in many GNU programs which do regular expression matching & is available separately. An alternate regular expression package,
rx, is faster than
regexin most cases & will replace
- rx (LangT, SrcCD)
Tom Lord has written
rx, a new regular expression library which is faster than the older GNU
regexlibrary. It is now being distributed with
rxwill be used in the next releases of
saoimage(UtilT) SAOimage is an X-based astronomical image viewer. It reads data images and displays them with a pseudocolor colormap. There is full interactive control of the colormap, reading, and writing of colormaps, etc.
- Scheme For more information, see section Scheme Tape (SchmT)
screenis a terminal multiplexer that runs several separate "screens" (ttys) on a single character-based terminal. Each virtual terminal emulates a DEC VT100 plus several ISO 6429 (ECMA 48, ANSI X3.64) and ISO 2022 functions. Arbitrary keyboard input translation is also supported.
screensessions can be detached and resumed later on a different terminal type. Output in detached sessions is saved for later viewing.
sed(DjgpD, DosBC, SrcCD, UtilD, UtilT)
sedis a stream-oriented version of
ed. It comes with the
- Sharutils (SrcCD, UtilT)
sharmakes so-called shell archives out of many files, preparing them for transmission by electronic mail services, while
unsharhelps unpack these shell archives after reception.
uuencodeprepares a file for transmission over an electronic channel which ignores or otherwise mangles the high order bit of bytes, while
uudecodedoes the converse transformation.
- Shellutils (DjgpD, DosBC, SrcCD, UtilT)
- GNU Shogi (SrcCD, UtilT) Shogi is a Japanese game similar to Chess; a major difference is that captured pieces can be returned into play. GNU Shogi is a variant of GNU Chess; it implements the same features & similar heuristics. As a new feature, sequences of partial board patterns can be introduced to help the program play toward specific opening patterns. It has both character and X display interfaces. It is primarily supported by Matthias Mutz on behalf of the FSF.
- Smalltalk Also see section Forthcoming GNUs (LangT,SrcCD) GNU Smalltalk is an interpreted object-oriented programming language system written in highly portable C. It has been ported to many Unix & some other platforms, including DOS (non-Unix ports are not available from the FSF). Features include a binary image save capability, the ability to invoke user-written C code & pass parameters to it, an Emacs editing mode, a version of the X protocol invocable from Smalltalk, optional byte-code compilation and/or execution tracing, & automatically loaded per-user initialization files. It implements all of the classes & protocol in the book "Smalltalk-80: The Language", except for the graphic user interface (GUI) related classes.
- Superopt (LangT, SrcCD) Superopt is a function sequence generator that uses an exhaustive generate-and-test approach to find the shortest instruction sequence for a given function. You provide a function as input, a CPU to generate code for, and how many instructions you want. Its use in GCC is described in the ACM SIGPLAN PLDI'92 proceedings. It supports: SPARC, m68k, m68020, m88k, IBM RS/6000, AMD 29000, Intel 80x86, Pyramid, DEC Alpha & HP--PA.
tar(SrcCD, UtilT) GNU
tarincludes multivolume support, the ability to archive sparse files, automatic archive compression/decompression, remote archives, and special features that allow
tarto be used for incremental and full backups. Unfortunately, GNU
tarimplements an early draft of the POSIX 1003.1 ustar standard which is different from the final standard. Adding support for the new changes in a backward-compatible fashion is unfortunately not trivial.
- Termcap Library (SrcCD, UtilT) [FSFman] The GNU Termcap library is a drop-in replacement for `libtermcap.a' on any system. It does not place an arbitrary limit on the size of Termcap entries, unlike most other Termcap libraries. Included is source for the Termcap Manual in Texinfo format. See section GNU Documentation.
- TeX (SrcCD)
TeX is a document formatting system that handles complicated
typesetting, including mathematics. It is GNU's standard text formatter.
The University of Washington maintains & supports a tape distribution of
TeX for Unix systems. The core material is Karl Berry's
web2cTeX package. Sources are available via anonymous ftp; retrieval instructions are in `pub/tex/unixtex.ftp' on
ftp.cs.umb.edu. If you receive any installation support from the University of Washington, consider sending them a donation. To order a full distribution written in
taron either a 1/4inch 4-track QIC-24 cartridge or a 4mm DAT cartridge, send $210.00 to:
Pierre A. MacKay Department of Classics DH-10, Denny Hall 218 University of Washington Seattle, WA 98195 USA Electronic-Mail:Please make checks payable to: `University of Washington'. Do not specify any other payee. That causes accounting problems. Checks must be in U.S. dollars, drawn on a U.S. bank. Only prepaid orders can be handled. Overseas sites: please add to the base cost $20.00 to ship via air parcel post or $30.00 to ship via courier. Please check with the above for current prices & formats.
- Texinfo (DjgpD,DosBC,LangT,LspEmcT,SrcCD,UtilD,UtilT)[FSFman]
Texinfo is a set of utilities
fixfonts) which generate both printed manuals & online hypertext documentation (called "Info"), & can read online Info documents. Version 3 has both Emacs Lisp & standalone programs written in C or shell script. Texinfo mode for Emacs enables easy editing & updating of Texinfo files. Source for the Texinfo Manual is included. See section GNU Documentation.
- Textutils (DjgpD, DosBC, SrcCD, UtilT)
The Textutils programs manipulate textual data. They include:
- Tile Forth (LangT, SrcCD) Tile Forth is a 32-bit implementation of the Forth--83 standard written in C, allowing it to be easily ported to new systems and extended with "any" C-function (graphics, windowing, etc). Many Forth libraries with full documentation are available including ones for top-down parsing, multi-threads, and object oriented programming.
timereports (usually from a shell) the user, system, & real time used by a process. On some systems it also reports memory usage, page faults, et al.
tputis a portable way for shell scripts to use special terminal capabilities. Our
tputuses the Termcap database, instead of Terminfo as most others do.
ucblogo(LangT, SrcCD) An implementation of the classic teaching language, Logo.
- UUCP (SrcCD, UtilT)
This version of UUCP (written by Ian Lance Taylor) is GNU's standard
UUCP system. It supports the
v(in all window & packet sizes),
e, Zmodem, & two new bidirectional (
j) protocols. With a BSD sockets library, it can make TCP connections. With TLI libraries, it can make TLI connections. Source is included for a manual (not yet published by the FSF).
wdiff(DjgpD, DosBC, SrcCD, UtilT)
wdiffis a front-end to GNU
diff. It compares two files, finding the words deleted or added to the first to make the second. It has many output formats and works well with terminals and pagers.
wdiffis very useful when two texts differ only by a few words and paragraphs have been refilled.
- X11 For details, see section X11 Tapes (X11OptT, X11ReqT)
Yglemulates SGI's GL (Graphics Language) library under X11 on GNU/Linux with XFree, AIX 3.2, ConvexOS, HP-UX 7/8/9, SunOS, et al.
Program/Package Cross Reference
Here is a list of what package each GNU program or library is in. You can anonymously FTP a full list in the file `/pub/gnu/ProgramIndex' from a GNU FTP host (listed in section How to Get GNU Software).
* a2p perl * a2x xopt * ac bsd44 * accton bsd44 * acl bsd44 * acm acm * acms acm * addftinfo Groff * adventure bsd44 * afm2tfm TeX * amd bsd44 * ansitape bsd44 * AnswerGarden xopt * apply bsd44 * appres xreq * apropos bsd44 * ar Binutils * arithmetic bsd44 * arp bsd44 * atc bsd44 * autoconf Autoconf * autoheader Autoconf * autoreconf Autoconf * autoscan Autoconf * autoupdate Autoconf * auto_box xopt * auto_box xreq * b2m Emacs * backgammon bsd44 * bad144 bsd44 * badsect bsd44 * banner bsd44 * basename Shellutils * bash BASH * battlestar bsd44 * bc bc * bcd bsd44 * bdes bsd44 * bdftops Ghostscript * beach_ball xopt * beach_ball xreq * beach_ball2 xopt * bibtex TeX * biff bsd44 * bison Bison * bitmap xreq * boggle bsd44 * bpltobzr Fontutils * bugfiler bsd44 * build ispell * bzrto Fontutils * c++ GCC * c++filt Binutils * c2ph perl * ca100 xopt * caeser bsd44 * cal bsd44 * calendar bsd44 * canfield bsd44 * cat Textutils * cbars wdiff * cc GCC * cc1 GCC * cc1obj GCC * cc1plus GCC * cccp GCC * cfengine cfengine * charspace Fontutils * checknr bsd44 * chess bsd44 * chflags bsd44 * chgrp Fileutils * ching bsd44 * chmod Fileutils * chown Fileutils * chpass bsd44 * chroot bsd44 * ci RCS * cksum Textutils * cktyps g77 * clisp CLISP * clri bsd44 * cmail xboard * cmmf TeX * cmodext xopt * cmp Diffutils * co RCS * col bsd44 * colcrt bsd44 * colrm bsd44 * column bsd44 * comm Textutils * compress bsd44 * comsat bsd44 * connectd bsd44 * cp Fileutils * cpicker xopt * cpio cpio * cpp GCC * cppstdin perl * cribbage bsd44 * crock xopt * csh bsd44 * csplit Textutils * ctags Emacs * ctwm xopt * cu UUCP * cut Textutils * cvs CVS * cvscheck CVS * cvtmail Emacs * cxterm xopt * d Fileutils * date Shellutils * dc bc * dd Fileutils * delatex TeX * demangle Binutils * descend CVS * detex TeX * df Fileutils * diff Diffutils * diff3 Diffutils * digest-doc Emacs * dipress bsd44 * dir Fileutils * dirname Shellutils * dish xopt * disklabel bsd44 * diskpart bsd44 * dld dld * dm bsd44 * dmesg bsd44 * doschk doschk * dox xopt * du Fileutils * dump bsd44 * dump mkisofs * dumpfs bsd44 * dvi2tty TeX * dvicopy TeX * dvips TeX * dvitype TeX * ecc ecc * echo Shellutils * ed ed * edit-pr GNATS * editres xreq * edquota bsd44 * eeprom bsd44 * egrep grep * emacs Emacs * emacsclient Emacs * emacsserver Emacs * emacstool Emacs * emu xopt * env Shellutils * eqn Groff * error bsd44 * es es * esdebug es * etags Emacs * ex nvi * expand Textutils * expect DejaGnu * expr Shellutils * exterm xopt * f2c f2c * factor bsd44 * fakemail Emacs * false Shellutils * fastboot bsd44 * fax2ps HylaFAX * faxalter HylaFAX * faxanswer HylaFAX * faxcover HylaFAX * faxd HylaFAX * faxd.recv HylaFAX * faxmail HylaFAX * faxquit HylaFAX * faxrcvd HylaFAX * faxrm HylaFAX * faxstat HylaFAX * fc f2c * fdraw xopt * ffe g77 * fgrep grep * file bsd44 * find Findutils * find2perl perl * finger finger * fingerd finger * fish bsd44 * fixfonts Texinfo * fixinc.svr4 GCC * fixincludes GCC * flex flex * flex++ flex * fmt bsd44 * fold Textutils * font2c Ghostscript * fontconvert Fontutils * forth Tile Forth * forthicon Tile Forth * forthtool Tile Forth * fortune bsd44 * fpr bsd44 * freq ispell * freqtbl ispell * from bsd44 * fsck bsd44 * fsplit bsd44 * fstat bsd44 * ftp bsd44 * ftpd bsd44 * g++ GCC * gas Binutils * gawk Gawk * gcc GCC * gcore bsd44 * gdb GDB * genclass libg++ * getty bsd44 * gftodvi TeX * gftopk TeX * gftype TeX * ghostview Ghostview * git GIT * gitaction GIT * gitcmp GIT * gitkeys GIT * gitmatch GIT * gitmount GIT * gitps GIT * gitredir GIT * gitrgrep GIT * gitview GIT * gitwipe GIT * gnats GNATS * gnuchess Chess * gnuchessc Chess * gnuchessn Chess * gnuchessr Chess * gnuchessx Chess * gnupdisp Shogi * gnuplot gnuplot * gnuplot_x11 gnuplot * gnushogi Shogi * gnushogir Shogi * gnushogix Shogi * go GnuGo * gpc xopt * gpc xreq * gperf cperf * gperf libg++ * gprof Binutils * graph Graphics * grep grep * grodvi Groff * groff Groff * grops Groff * grotty Groff * groups Shellutils * gs Ghostscript * gsbj Ghostscript * gsdj Ghostscript * gslj Ghostscript * gslp Ghostscript * gsnd Ghostscript * gsrenderfont Fontutils * gunzip gzip * gwm xopt * gzexe gzip * gzip gzip * h2ph perl * h2pl perl * hack bsd44 * hangman bsd44 * head Textutils * hello hello * hexdump bsd44 * hexl Emacs * hostname Shellutils * hp2xx hp2xx * hterm xopt * i18nOlwmV2 xopt * i2mif xopt * ico xopt * ico xreq * id Shellutils * ident RCS * ifconfig bsd44 * ifnames Autoconf * ImageMagick xopt * imageto Fontutils * iman xopt * imgrotate Fontutils * indent indent * indxbib Groff * inetd bsd44 * info Texinfo * inimf TeX * init bsd44 * initex TeX * inn bsd44 * install Fileutils * iostat bsd44 * isodiag mkisofs * isodump mkisofs * ispell ispell * ixterm xopt * ixx xopt * join Textutils * jot bsd44 * jove bsd44 * kdestroy bsd44 * kdump bsd44 * kermit bsd44 * kgames xopt * kgmon bsd44 * kill bsd44 * kinit bsd44 * kinput2 xopt * klist bsd44 * kpasswdd bsd44 * ksrvtgt bsd44 * kterm xopt * ktrace bsd44 * lam bsd44 * larn bsd44 * lasergnu gnuplot * last bsd44 * lastcomm bsd44 * latex TeX * lclock xopt * ld Binutils * leave bsd44 * less less * lesskey less * libbfd.a Binutils * libbfd.a GAS * libbfd.a GDB * libbzr.a Fontutils * libc.a C Library * libcompat.a bsd44 * libcurses.a bsd44 * libcurses.a nvi * libdcurses.a ncurses * libedit.a bsd44 * libF77.a f2c * libF77.a g77 * libg++.a libg++ * libgdbm.a gdbm * libgf.a Fontutils * libgmp.a gmp * libI77.a f2c * libI77.a g77 * libkvm.a bsd44 * libm.a bsd44 * libncurses.a ncurses * libnihcl.a NIHCL * libnihclmi.a NIHCL * libnihclvec.a NIHCL * libnls.a xreq * libobjects.a libobjects * liboctave.a Octave * liboldX.a xreq * libpbm.a Fontutils * libPEXt.a xopt * libpk.a Fontutils * libresolv.a bsd44 * librpc.a bsd44 * libtcl.a DejaGnu * libtelnet.a bsd44 * libterm.a bsd44 * libtermcap.a Termcap * libtfm.a Fontutils * libutil.a bsd44 * libWc.a xopt * libwidgets.a Fontutils * libX.a xreq * libXau.a xreq * libXaw.a xreq * libXcp.a xopt * libXcu.a xopt * libXdmcp.a xreq * libXmp.a xopt * libXmu.a xreq * libXO.a xopt * libXop.a xopt * libXp.a xopt * libXpex.a xopt * libXt.a xopt * libXt.a xreq * libXwchar.a xopt * liby.a bsd44 * libYgl.a Ygl * limn Fontutils * listres xopt * listres xreq * lkbib Groff * ln Fileutils * locate Findutils * lock bsd44 * logger bsd44 * login bsd44 * logname Shellutils * logo ucblogo * look ispell * lookbib Groff * lorder bsd44 * lpr bsd44 * ls Fileutils * m4 m4 * mail bsd44 * mail-files Sharutils * mailshar Sharutils * make Make * make-docfile Emacs * make-path Emacs * makeindex TeX * makeinfo Texinfo * MakeTeXPK TeX * man bsd44 * man-macros Groff * mattrib mtools * maze xopt * maze xreq * mazewar xopt * mcd mtools * mcopy mtools * mdel mtools * mdir mtools * me-macros Groff * merge RCS * mesg bsd44 * mf TeX * mformat mtools * mft TeX * mgdiff xopt * mh bsd44 * mille bsd44 * mkdep bsd44 * mkdir Fileutils * mkfifo Fileutils * mkisofs mkisofs * mklocale bsd44 * mkmanifest mtools * mkmf bsd44 * mkmodules CVS * mknod Fileutils * mkstr bsd44 * mlabel mtools * mm-macros Groff * mmd mtools * monop bsd44 * more bsd44 * morse bsd44 * mount bsd44 * mountd bsd44 * movemail Emacs * mprof bsd44 * mrd mtools * mread mtools * mren mtools * ms-macros Groff * msgs bsd44 * mst Smalltalk * mt cpio * mterm xopt * mtree bsd44 * mtype mtools * mule MULE * muncher xopt * mv Fileutils * mvdir Fileutils * mwrite mtools * nethack Nethack * netstat bsd44 * newfs bsd44 * nfsd bsd44 * nfsiod bsd44 * nfsstat bsd44 * nice Shellutils * nl Textutils * nlmconv Binutils * nm Binutils * nohup Shellutils * notify HylaFAX * nroff Groff * number bsd44 * objc GCC * objcopy Binutils * objdump Binutils * objective-c GCC * obst-boot OBST * obst-CC OBST * obst-cct OBST * obst-cgc OBST * obst-cmp OBST * obst-cnt OBST * obst-cpcnt OBST * obst-csz OBST * obst-dir OBST * obst-dmp OBST * obst-gen OBST * obst-gsh OBST * obst-init OBST * obst-scp OBST * obst-sil OBST * obst-stf OBST * oclock xreq * octave Octave * od Textutils * oleo Oleo * ora-examples xopt * p2c p2c * pagesize bsd44 * palette xopt * pascal bsd44 * passwd bsd44 * paste Textutils * patch patch * patgen TeX * pathalias bsd44 * pathchk Shellutils * pax bsd44 * pbmplus xopt * perl perl * pfbtops Groff * phantasia bsd44 * pic Groff * pico pine * pig bsd44 * pine pine * ping bsd44 * pixedit xopt * pixmap xopt * pktogf TeX * pktype TeX * plaid xopt * plot2fig Graphics * plot2plot Graphics * plot2ps Graphics * plot2tek Graphics * pltotf TeX * pollrcvd HylaFAX * pom bsd44 * pooltype TeX * portmap bsd44 * ppt bsd44 * pr Textutils * pr-addr GNATS * pr-edit GNATS * primes bsd44 * printenv Shellutils * printf Shellutils * protoize GCC * ps bsd44 * ps2ascii Ghostscript * ps2epsi Ghostscript * ps2fax HylaFAX * psbb Groff * pstat bsd44 * psycho xopt * ptx ptx * pubdic+ xopt * puzzle xopt * puzzle xreq * pwd Shellutils * pyramid xopt * query-pr GNATS * quiz bsd44 * quot bsd44 * quota bsd44 * quotacheck bsd44 * quotaon bsd44 * rain bsd44 * random bsd44 * ranlib Binutils * rbootd bsd44 * rc rc * rcp bsd44 * rcs RCS * rcs-to-cvs CVS * rcs2log Emacs * rcsdiff RCS * rcsfreeze RCS * rcsmerge RCS * rdist bsd44 * reboot bsd44 * recode recode * recvstats HylaFAX * red ed * refer Groff * remsync Sharutils * renice bsd44 * repquota bsd44 * restore bsd44 * rev bsd44 * rexecd bsd44 * rlog RCS * rlogin bsd44 * rlogind bsd44 * rm Fileutils * rmail bsd44 * rmdir Fileutils * rmt cpio * rmt tar * robots bsd44 * rogue bsd44 * route bsd44 * routed bsd44 * rr xopt * rs bsd44 * rsh bsd44 * rshd bsd44 * runtest DejaGnu * runtest.exp DejaGnu * ruptime bsd44 * rwho bsd44 * rwhod bsd44 * s2p perl * sail bsd44 * saoimage saoimage * savecore bsd44 * sc bsd44 * sccs bsd44 * sccs2rcs CVS * scdisp xopt * screen screen * script bsd44 * scsiformat bsd44 * sctext xopt * sdiff Diffutils * sed sed * send-pr GNATS * sendfax HylaFAX * sendmail bsd44 * sgi2fax HylaFAX * sh bsd44 * shar Sharutils * shinbun xopt * shogi Shogi * showfont xopt * showmount bsd44 * shutdown bsd44 * size Binutils * sj3 xopt * sjxa xopt * slattach bsd44 * sleep Shellutils * sliplogin bsd44 * snake bsd44 * snftobdf xopt * soelim Groff * sort Textutils * sos2obst OBST * spider xopt * split Textutils * startslip bsd44 * stf OBST * strings Binutils * strip Binutils * stty Shellutils * su Shellutils * sum Textutils * superopt Superopt * swapon bsd44 * sync bsd44 * sysctl bsd44 * syslogd bsd44 * systat bsd44 * tac Textutils * tail Textutils * taintperl perl * talk bsd44 * talkd bsd44 * tangle TeX * tar tar * tbl Groff * tcl DejaGnu * tclsh DejaGnu * tcopy bsd44 * tcp Emacs * tee Shellutils * tek2plot Graphics * telnet bsd44 * telnetd bsd44 * test Shellutils * test-g++ DejaGnu * test-tool DejaGnu * tetris bsd44 * tex TeX * tex3patch Texinfo * texi2dvi Texinfo * texindex Texinfo * texspell TeX * textfmt HylaFAX * tfmtodit Groff * tftopl TeX * tftp bsd44 * tftpd bsd44 * tgrind TeX * time time * timed bsd44 * timer Emacs * timex xopt * tip bsd44 * tkpostage xopt * tn3270 bsd44 * touch Fileutils * tput tput * tr Textutils * traceroute bsd44 * transcript HylaFAX * transfig xopt * trek bsd44 * trn3 bsd44 * troff Groff * trpt bsd44 * trsp bsd44 * true Shellutils * tset bsd44 * tsort bsd44 * tty Shellutils * tunefs bsd44 * tvtwm xopt * twm xreq * ul bsd44 * umount bsd44 * uname Shellutils * uncompress gzip * unexpand Textutils * unifdef bsd44 * unify wdiff * uniq Textutils * unprotoize GCC * unshar Sharutils * unvis bsd44 * update bsd44 * updatedb Findutils * users Shellutils * uuchk UUCP * uucico UUCP * uuconv UUCP * uucp UUCP * uucpd bsd44 * uudecode Sharutils * uudir UUCP * uuencode Sharutils * uulog UUCP * uuname UUCP * uupick UUCP * uurate UUCP * uusched UUCP * uustat UUCP * uuto UUCP * uux UUCP * uuxqt UUCP * v Fileutils * vacation bsd44 * vandal xopt * vcdiff Emacs * vdir Fileutils * vftovp TeX * vgrind bsd44 * vi nvi * viewres xopt * viewres xreq * vine xopt * vipw bsd44 * virmf TeX * virtex TeX * vis bsd44 * vmstat bsd44 * vptovf TeX * w bsd44 * wakeup Emacs * wall bsd44 * wargames bsd44 * wc Textutils * wdiff wdiff * weave TeX * what bsd44 * whatis bsd44 * whereis bsd44 * who Shellutils * whoami Shellutils * whois bsd44 * window bsd44 * winterp xopt * wish DejaGnu * worm bsd44 * worms bsd44 * write bsd44 * wump bsd44 * x11perf xreq * x2p perl * xalarm xopt * xancur xopt * xargs Findutils * xauth xreq * xbfe Fontutils * xbiff xopt * xbiff xreq * xboard xboard * xboing xopt * xbuffy3 xopt * xcalc xopt * xcalc xreq * xcalendar xopt * xcdplayer xopt * xcell xopt * xclipboard xreq * xclock xreq * xcmdmenu xopt * xcms xopt * xcmsdb xreq * xcmstest xreq * xco xopt * xcolorize xopt * xcolors xopt * xconsole xreq * xcrtca xopt * xdaliclock xopt * xdiary xopt * xditview Groff * xditview xopt * xditview xreq * xdm xreq * xdpyinfo xreq * xdu xopt * xdvi TeX * xdvi xopt * xdvorak xopt * xearth xopt * xed xopt * xedit xopt * xedit xreq * xev xopt * xev xreq * xexit xopt * xeyes xopt * xeyes xreq * xfd xreq * xfed xopt * xfedor xopt * xfeoak xopt * xferstats HylaFAX * xfig xopt * xfontsel xopt * xfontsel xreq * xforecast xopt * xgas xopt * xgas xreq * xgc xopt * xgc xreq * xhearts xopt * xhelp xopt * xhost xreq * xinit xreq * xkeycaps xopt * xkill xreq * xlax xopt * xlayout xopt * xlbiff xopt * xless xopt * xload xopt * xload xreq * xlogin xopt * xlogo xreq * xlsatoms xreq * xlsclients xreq * xlsfonts xreq * xmag xreq * xmail xopt * xmailbox xopt * xmailwatcher xopt * xman xopt * xman xreq * xmandel xopt * xmessage xopt * xmeter xopt * xmh xreq * xmh-icons xopt * xmh.editor xopt * xmodmap xreq * xmon xopt * xmove xopt * xmphone xopt * xpd xopt * xphoon xopt * xpipeman xopt * xplot Graphics * xpostit xopt * xpr xopt * xpr xreq * xprompt xopt * xproof xopt * xprop xreq * xpserv xopt * xrdb xreq * xrefresh xreq * xrsh xopt * xrubik xopt * xrunclient xopt * xscope xopt * xscreensaver xopt * xsession xopt * xset xreq * xsetroot xreq * xshogi xshogi * xstdcmap xreq * xstr bsd44 * xtalk xopt * xterm xreq * xterm_color xopt * xtetris xopt * xTeXcad.13 xopt * xtiff xopt * xtree xopt * xtv xopt * xwd xreq * xwininfo xreq * xwud xreq * yacc bsd44 * yes Shellutils * youbin xopt * yow Emacs * zcat gzip * zcmp gzip * zdiff gzip * zforce gzip * zgrep gzip * zmore gzip * znew gzip * [ Shellutils
We offer Unix
source code on tapes in
tar format on these media:
- 4mm DAT cartridges.
- 8mm Exabyte cartridges.
- Sun DC300XLP QIC-24 1/4in cartridges (readable on some other systems).
- Hewlett-Packard 16-track DC600HC 1/4in cartridges.
- IBM RS/6000 QIC-150 1/4in cartridges (readable on some other systems).
- 1600bpi 9-track 1/2in reel tape.
The contents of the various tapes for Unix systems are the same (except the RS/6000 Emacs tape also has binaries for Emacs); only the media are different. For prices, see the see section Free Software Foundation Order Form. Source code for the manuals & reference cards is included (see section GNU Documentation).
Some of the files on the tapes may be compressed with
make them fit. Refer to the top-level `README' file at the
beginning of each tape for instructions on uncompressing them.
unpack do not work!
This tape contains programming tools: compilers, interpreters and related programs (parsers, conversion programs, debuggers, etc.).
* Binutils 2.5.2 * Bison 1.24 * C Library 1.09 * cperf 2.1a * DejaGnu 1.2 * dld 3.2.3 * ecc 1.2.1 * f2c 1995.02.24 * flex 2.5.2 * g77 0.5.15 * Gawk 2.15.6 * GCC/G++/Object-C 2.6.3 * GCC/G++/Object-C 2.7.0 * GDB 4.14 * gdbm 1.7.3 * gmp 1.3.2 * gzip 1.2.4 * indent 1.9.1 * libg++ 2.6.2 * libg++ 2.7.0 * libobjects 0.1.3 * Make 3.74 * ncurses 1.9.1a * NIHCL 3.1.4 * OBST 3.4.3 * Octave 1.1.1 * p2c 1.20 * perl 4.036 * perl 5.001 * regex 0.12 * rx 0.05 * Smalltalk 1.1.1 * Superopt 2.5 * Texinfo 3.6 * Tile Forth 2.1 * ucblogo
This tape has Common Lisp systems and libraries, GNU Emacs, assorted extensions that work with GNU Emacs, and a few other important utilities.
* Calc 2.02c * CLISP 1995.04.25 * Common Lisp 2.1 * elib 0.06 * Emacs 18.59 * Emacs 19.28 * Emacs 19.29 * GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual Ed. 1.3 for Version 18 * GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual Ed. 2.4 for Version 19.29 * gzip 1.2.4 * Make 3.74 * MULE 2.2 * PCL 2.1 * Programming in Emacs Lisp Ed. 1.03 * Texinfo 3.6
This tape consists mostly of smaller utilities, and miscellaneous applications.
* acm 4.7 * Autoconf 2.4 * BASH 1.14.5 * bc 1.03 * cfengine 1.0.4 * Chess 4.0.74 * cpio 2.3 * CVS 1.3 * Diffutils 2.7 * doschk 1.1 * ed 0.2 * es 0.84 * Fileutils 3.12 * Findutils 4.1 * finger 1.37 * Fontutils 0.6 * Ghostscript 2.6.2 * Ghostview 1.5 * Ghostview for Windows 1.0 * GIT 4.3.6 * GNATS 3.2 * GnuGo 1.1 * gnuplot 3.5 * Graphics 0.17 * grep 2.0 * Groff 1.09 * gzip 1.2.4 * hello 1.3 * hp2xx 3.1.4 * HylaFAX 3.0.0 * ispell 3.1.18 * less 2.9.0 * m4 1.4 * Make 3.74 * MandelSpawn 0.07 * mkisofs 1.03GNU * mm 1.07 * mtools 2.0.7 * Nethack 3.1.3 * nvi 1.34 * Oleo 1.6 * patch 2.1 * pine 3.91 * ptx 0.4 * rc 1.4 * RCS 5.7 * readline 2.0 * recode 3.4 * saoimage 1.08 * screen 3.6.2 * sed 2.05 * Sharutils 4.1 * Shellutils 1.12 * Shogi 1.2.3 * tar 1.11.8 * Termcap 1.2 * Texinfo 3.6 * Textutils 1.12 * time 1.6 * tput 1.0 * UUCP 1.05 * wdiff 0.5 * xboard 3.2.2 * xshogi 1.2.03 * Ygl 2.9.5
Scheme is a simplified, lexically-scoped dialect of Lisp. It was designed at MIT and other universities to teach students the art of programming and to research new parallel programming constructs and compilation techniques.
This tape now has MIT Scheme 7.3, which conforms to the "Revised^4 Report On the Algorithmic Language Scheme" (MIT AI Lab Memo 848b), for which TeX source is included. It is written partly in C, but is presently hard to bootstrap. Binaries that can be used to bootstrap it are available for: HP 9000 series 300, 400, 700, & 800 (running HP-UX 9.0), NeXT (NeXT OS 2 or 3.2), DEC Alpha (OSF/1), IBM RS-6000 (AIX), Sun-3 or Sun-4 (SunOS 4.1), DECstation 3100/5100 (Ultrix 4.0), Sony NeWS-3250 (NEWS OS 5.01), & Intel i386 (MS-DOS, Windows 3.1 or NT). If your system is not on this list & you don't enjoy the bootstrap challenge, see "JACAL" in section GNU Software.
The two X11 tapes contain Version 11, Release 6 of the X Window System. The first tape has all of the core software, documentation, & some contributed clients. We call this the "required" X tape since it is necessary for running X or GNU Emacs under X. The second, "optional" tape has contributed libraries & toolkits, the Andrew User Interface System, games, et al.
The X11 Required tape also contains all fixes and patches released to date. We update this tape as new fixes and patches are released for programs on both tapes. See section Tape & CD-ROM Subscription Service.
We will distribute X11R5 on tape until X11R6 is stable and on the section November 1993 Source Code CD-ROM, while supplies last.
Berkeley 4.4BSD--Lite Tape
The "4.4BSD--Lite" release is the last from the Computer Systems Research Group at the University of California at Berkeley. It has most of the BSD software system, except for a few files that remain proprietary. It is much more complete than the previous "Net2" release.
VMS Emacs and VMS Compiler Tapes
We offer two VMS tapes. One has just GNU Emacs 18.59 (none of the other software on the section Lisps/Emacs Tape, is included). The other has GCC 2.3.3, Bison 1.19 (to compile GCC), GAS 1.38 (to assemble GCC's output), and some library and include files (none of the other software on the section Languages Tape, is included). We are not aware of a GDB port for VMS. Both VMS tapes have DEC VAX executables from which you can bootstrap, as the DEC VMS C compiler cannot compile GCC. We do not have executables for DEC Alpha VMS systems. Please do not ask us to devote effort to VMS support, because it is peripheral to the GNU Project.
We offer these CD-ROMs:
- Several editions of our section Source Code CD-ROMs.
- section December 1994 Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM.
- section MS-DOS Book with CD-ROM, expected in late fall, 1995.
- section Debian GNU/Linux Book with CD-ROM, expected in late fall, 1995.
Our CD-ROMs are in ISO 9660 format & can be mounted as a read-only file system on most computers. If your driver supports it you can mount each CD-ROM with "Rock Ridge" extensions (the MS-DOS CD-ROM is only in ISO 9660 format), & it will look just like an ordinary Unix file system, rather than one full of truncated & otherwise mangled names that fit vanilla ISO 9660.
You can build most of the software without copying the sources off the CD. You only need enough disk space for object files and intermediate build targets.
Pricing of the GNU CD-ROMs
If a business or organization is ultimately paying, the June 1995 Source CD costs $240. It costs $60 if you, an individual, are paying out of your own pocket. The December 1994 Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM costs $220 for a business or organization, and $55 for an individual.
What do the individual and company prices mean?
The software on our disks is free; anyone can copy it and anyone can run it. What we charge for is the physical disk and the service of distribution.
We charge two different prices depending on who is buying. When a company or other organization buys the June 1995 Source CD-ROM, we charge $240. When an individual buys the same CD-ROM, we charge just $60. This distinction is not a matter of who is allowed to use the software. In either case, once you have a copy, you can distribute as many copies as you wish and there's no restriction on who can have or run them. The price distinction is entirely a matter of what kind of entity pays for the CD.
You, the reader, are certainly an individual, not a company. If you are buying a disk "in person", then you are probably doing so as an individual. But if you expect to be reimbursed by your employer, then the disk is really for the company; so please pay the company price and get reimbursed for it. We won't try to check up on you--we use the honor system--so please cooperate.
Buying CDs at the company price is very helpful for GNU; just 140 Source CDs at that price supports an FSF programmer or tech writer for a year.
Why is there an individual price?
In the past, our distribution tapes have been ordered mainly by companies. The CD at the price of $240 provides them with all of our software for a much lower price than they would previously have paid for six different tapes. To lower the price more would cut into the FSF's funds very badly and decrease the software development we can do.
However, for individuals, $240 is too high a price; hardly anyone could afford that. So we decided to make CDs available to individuals at the lower price of $60.
Is there a maximum price?
Our stated prices are minimum prices. Feel free to pay a higher price if you wish to support GNU development more. The sky's the limit; we will accept as high a price as you can offer. Or simply give a donation (tax-deductible in the U.S.) to the Free Software Foundation, a tax-exempt public charity.
December 1994 Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM
We now have the second edition of the CD-ROM that has binaries for GNU compiler tools for some systems which lack a compiler. This enables the people who use these systems to compile GNU and other free software without having to buy a proprietary compiler. You can also use these GNU tools to compile your own C/C++/Objective-C programs. The first edition of this CD is available while supplies last at a reduced price; see the see section Free Software Foundation Order Form.
We hope to have more systems on each update of this CD. If you can help build binaries for new systems (especially those that don't come with a C compiler), or have one to suggest, please contact us at the addresses on the top menu.
* DJGPP 1.12.m2 from GCC 2.6.0 * GCC/G++/Objective-C 2.6.2 * GNU C Library 1.09 * GDB 4.13 * Binutils 2.5.2 * Bison 1.22 * Emacs 19.26 (MS-DOS only) * Flex 2.4.7 * Make 3.72.1 * libg++ 2.6.1
On these platforms:
MS-DOS Book with CD-ROM
We hope to release our first Book describing GNU Software for MS-DOS in late fall, 1995. Contact either address on the top menu for more information then.
It will include a CD-ROM with all the sources & binaries on the MS-DOS Diskettes. For version numbers & some details, see section MS-DOS Diskettes.
Debian GNU/Linux Book with CD-ROM
We hope to release our first Book describing Debian GNU/Linux in late fall, 1995. A CD will be inside the book with sources for Debian GNU/Linux.
GNU/Linux is a complete operating system for i386, i486, & Pentium machines, available in both source code & binary form. It is a GNU/Linux system--that is to say, a variant GNU system which uses Linux as the kernel. (All the systems now available that use the Linux kernel are GNU/Linux systems.)
Debian is being developed by Ian Murdock and the Debian Association in conjunction with the Free Software Foundation. We are distributing it as an interim measure until the GNU kernel (the Hurd) is ready for users.
You can FTP Debian under `/pub/debian' from
ftp.cps.cmich.edu. For details about Debian & how to get
involved, see `/pub/gnu/GNUinfo/DEBIAN' on a GNU FTP host (section How to Get GNU Software).
Source Code CD-ROMs
We have several versions of our Source Code CD-ROMs available, including:
- section June 1995 Source Code CD-ROM, the newest release.
- section May 1994 Source Code CD-ROM.
- section November 1993 Source Code CD-ROM.
These & other older Source CDs are available while supplies last at a reduced price; see the see section Free Software Foundation Order Form (please note that the December 1994 Source CD is permanently out of stock). All the Source CDs also have Texinfo source for the GNU manuals listed in section GNU Documentation.
The VMS tapes' contents are not included. Many programs that are only on MS-DOS diskettes & not on the tapes are also not included. The MIT Scheme & X11 Optional tapes' contents are not on the November 1993, May 1994, or June 1995 Source CDs. See section Tapes & section MS-DOS Diskettes.
There are no precompiled programs on these Source CDs. You will need a C compiler (programs which need some other interpreter or compiler normally provide the C source for a bootstrapping program). We ship C compiler binaries for some systems on the section December 1994 Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM.
June 1995 Source Code CD-ROM
The sixth edition of our Source CD is out! Not all FSF distributed software is included (see section Source Code CD-ROMs). It contains these packages, and some manuals that are not part of packages:
* acm 4.7 * Autoconf 2.4 * BASH 1.14.5 * bc 1.03 * Binutils 2.5.2 * Bison 1.24 * C Library 1.09 * Calc 2.02c * cfengine 1.0.4 * Chess 4.0.pl74 * CLISP 1995.04.25 * Common Lisp 2.1 * cperf 2.1a * cpio 2.3 * CVS 1.3 * DejaGnu 1.2 * Diffutils 2.7 * dld 3.2.3 * doschk 1.1 * ecc 1.2.1 * ed 0.2 * elib 0.06 * Emacs 18.59 * Emacs 19.28 * Emacs 19.29 * GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual Ed. 1.3 for Version 18 * GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual Ed. 2.4 for Version 19.29 * es 0.84 * f2c 1995.02.24 * Fileutils 3.12 * Findutils 4.1 * finger 1.37 * flex 2.5.2 * Fontutils 0.6 * g77 0.5.15 * Gawk 2.15.6 * GCC 2.6.3 * GCC 2.7.0 * GDB 4.14 * gdbm 1.7.3 * Ghostscript 2.6.2 * Ghostview 1.5 * Ghostview for Windows 1.0 * GIT 4.3.6 * gmp 1.3.2 * GNATS 3.2 * GnuGo 1.1 * gnuplot 3.5 * Graphics 0.17 * grep 2.0 * Groff 1.09 * gzip 1.2.4 * hello 1.3 * hp2xx 3.1.4 * HylaFAX 3.0.pl0 * indent 1.9.1 * ispell 3.1.18 * less 2.90 * libg++ 2.6.2 * libg++ 2.7.0 * libobjects 0.1.3 * m4 1.4 * Make 3.74 * MandelSpawn 0.07 * mkisofs 1.03GNU * mtools 2.0.7 * MULE 2.2 * ncurses 1.9.1 * Nethack 3.1.3 * NIHCL 3.1.4 * nvi 1.34 * OBST 3.4.3 * Octave 1.1.1 * Oleo 1.6 * p2c 1.20 * patch 2.1 * PCL 2.1 * perl 4.036 * perl 5.001 * pine 3.91 * Programming in Emacs Lisp: An Introduction Ed. 1.03 for Version 19 * ptx 0.4 * rc 1.4 * RCS 5.7 * recode 3.4 * regex 0.12 * rx 0.05 * screen 3.6.2 * sed 2.05 * Sharutils 4.1 * Shellutils 1.12 * Shogi 1.2p03 * Smalltalk 1.1.1 * Superopt 2.5 * tar 1.11.8 * Termcap 1.2 * TeX 3.1415 * Texinfo 3.6 * Textutils 1.12 * Tile Forth 2.1 * time 1.6 * tput 1.0 * ucblogo * UUCP 1.05 * wdiff 0.5 * X11R6 * xboard 3.2.pl2 * xshogi 1.2p03 * Ygl 2.9.5
May 1994 Source Code CD-ROM
We still have the fourth edition of our Source CD, at a reduced price, while supplies last. This CD has Edition 2.3 for version 19.25 of the GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual & some additional software; not all FSF distributed software is included (see section Source Code CD-ROMs). It contains these packages:
* acm 4.5 * Autoconf 1.10 * BASH 1.13.5 * bc 1.02 * Binutils 2.3 * Bison 1.22 * C Library 1.08 * Calc 2.02c * Chess 4.0.69 * CLISP 1994.01.08 * Common Lisp 1.0 * cpio 2.3 * CVS 1.3 * dc 0.2 * DejaGnu 1.2 * Diffutils 2.6 * dld 3.2.3 * doschk 1.1 * ecc 1.2.1 * ed 0.1 * elib 0.06 * Emacs 18.59 * Emacs 19.23 * es 0.84 * f2c 1994.04.14 * Fileutils 3.9 * find 3.8 * finger 1.37 * flex 2.4.6 * Fontutils 0.6 * GAS 1.36.utah * GAS 2.2 * Gawk 2.15.4 * GCC 2.5.8 * GDB 4.12 * gdbm 1.7.1 * Ghostscript 2.6.1 * Ghostview 1.5 * Ghostview for Windows 1.0 * gmp 1.3.2 * GNATS 3.2 * GnuGo 1.1 * gnuplot 3.5 * gperf 2.1a * Graphics 0.17 * grep 2.0 * Groff 1.09 * gzip 1.2.4 * hello 1.3 * hp2xx 3.1.4 * indent 1.9.1 * ispell 4.0 * libg++ 2.5.3 * m4 1.1 * Make 3.71 * MandelSpawn 0.07 * mtools 2.0.7 * MULE 1.0 * NetFax 3.2.1 * Nethack 3.1.3 * NIHCL 3.0 * nvi 1.11 * Octave 1.0 * Oleo 1.5 * p2c 1.20 * patch 2.1 * PCL 1993.03.18 * perl 4.036 * ptx 0.3 * rc 1.4 * RCS 18.104.22.168 * recode 3.3 * regex 0.12 * screen 3.5.2 * sed 2.05 * shellutils 1.9.4 * Shogi 1.1.02 * Smalltalk 1.1.1 * Superopt 2.3 * tar 1.11.2 * Termcap 1.2 * TeX 3.1 * Texinfo 3.1 * Textutils 1.9.1 * Tile Forth 2.1 * time 1.6 * tput 1.0 * UUCP 1.05 * uuencode 1.0 * wdiff 0.04 * X11R6 * xboard 3.0.9 * xshogi 1.2.02
November 1993 Source Code CD-ROM
We still have the third edition of our Source CD, at a reduced price, while supplies last. It contains X11R5, as we feel that people should have a choice between X11R5 and X11R6 until the latter is stable. This CD has Edition 2.2 for version 19 of the GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual & some additional software; not all FSF distributed software is included (see section Source Code CD-ROMs). It contains these packages:
* acm 3.1 * Autoconf 1.7 * BASH 1.13.4 * bc 1.02 * Binutils 1.9 2.3 * Bison 1.22 * C Library 1.06.7 * Calc 2.02b * Chess 4.0p62 * CLISP 93.11.08 * cpio 2.3 * CVS 1.3 * dc 0.2 * DejaGnu 1.0.1 * Diffutils 2.6 * dld 3.2.3 * doschk 1.1 * ecc 1.2.1 * elib 0.06 * Emacs 18.59 * Emacs 19.21 * es 0.84 * f2c 1993.04.28 * Fileutils 3.9 * find 3.8 * finger 1.37 * flex 2.3.8 * Fontutils 0.6 * GAS 1.36.utah * GAS 1.38.1 * GAS 2.2 * Gawk 2.15.3 * GCC 2.5.4 * GDB 4.11 * gdbm 1.7.1 * Ghostscript 2.6.1 * Ghostview 1.5 * Ghostview for Windows 1.0 * gmp 1.3.2 * GNATS 3.01 * GnuGo 1.1 * gnuplot 3.5 * cperf 2.1a * Graphics 0.17 * grep 2.0 * Groff 1.08 * gzip 1.2.4 * hello 1.3 * hp2xx 3.1.3a * indent 1.8 * Ispell 4.0 * less 177 * libg++ 2.5.1 * m4 1.1 * Make 3.69.1 * MandelSpawn 0.06 * mtools 2.0.7 * MULE 1.0 * NetFax 3.2.1 * Nethack 3.1.3 * NIHCL 3.0 * Oleo 1.5 * p2c 1.20 * patch 2.1 * PCL 93.03.18 * perl 4.036 * ptx 0.3 * rc 1.4 * RCS 22.214.171.124 * recode 3.2.4 * regex 0.12 * screen 3.5.2 * sed 1.18 2.03 * Shellutils 1.9.1 * Shogi 1.1p02 * Smalltalk 1.1.1 * Superopt 2.3 * tar 1.11.2 * Termcap 1.2 * TeX 3.1 * Texinfo 3.1 * Tile Forth 2.1 * time 1.6 * time 1.6 * tput 1.0 * UUCP 1.04 * uuencode 1.0 * wdiff 0.04 * X11R5
The FSF distributes some of the GNU software ported to MS-DOS, on 3.5inch 1.44MB diskettes. These disks have both sources and executables.
We offer DJGPP on 30 diskettes. For further details, see section GNU Software. The DJGPP diskettes contain the following:
* bc 1.03 * Binutils 2.4 * Bison 1.22 * cpio 2.3 * Diffutils 2.6 * doschk 1.1 * Fileutils 3.9 * Findutils 3.8 * flex 2.4.7 * GAS 2.4 * Gawk 2.15.5 * GCC 2.6.0 * GDB 4.12 * Ghostscript 2.6.1 * Groff 1.09 * gzip 1.24 * hello 1.3 * indent 1.9 * ispell 4.0 * libg++ 2.6.1 * m4 1.2 * Make 3.71 * patch 2.1 * sed 1.18 * shellutils 1.9 * Texinfo 3.1 * texutils 1.9 * wdiff 0.04
Two versions of GNU Emacs are included on the Emacs diskettes we distribute: GNU Emacs version 19.28 handles 8-bit character sets; the other, MULE version 2.1, handles 16-bit character sets including Kanji.
Selected Utilities Diskettes
The GNUish MS-DOS Project ported GNU software to PC compatibles. Though GNUish is no longer active, users still ask for these ports done some years ago. We offer these ports on five diskettes. To find out how to get them on the Internet, you can FTP files `/pub/gnu/MicrosPorts/MSDOS*' from a GNU FTP host (listed in section How to Get GNU Software). In general, the ports run on 8086/80286--based 16-bit machines; an 80386 is not required. Some are necessarily missing features.
We offer GNU Chess and
gnuplot for Microsoft Windows on a single
Tape & CD-ROM Subscription Service
If you do not have net access, our subscription service enables you to stay current with the latest GNU developments. For a one-time cost equivalent to three tapes or CD-ROMs (plus shipping in some cases), we will ship you four new versions of the tape of your choice or the Source Code CD-ROM. The tapes are sent each quarter; the CD-ROMs are sent as they are issued (currently twice a year, but we hope to make it more frequent.)
Regularly, we will send you a new version of a Lisps/Emacs, Languages, Utilities, or X Window System (X11R6) Required tape, or the Source CD-ROM. The MIT Scheme and X Window System Optional tapes are not changed often enough to warrant quarterly updates. We do not yet know if we will be offering subscriptions to the Compiler Tools Binaries or our new Books with CD-ROM.
Since Emacs 19 is on the Lisps/Emacs Tape and the Source CD-ROM, a subscription to either is an easy way to keep current with Emacs 19 as it evolves.
A subscription is an easy way to keep up with the regular bug fixes to the X Window System. We update the X11R6 Required tape as fixes and patches are issued throughout the year. Each edition of the section Source Code CD-ROMs, also has updated sources for the required part of the X Window System.
Please note: In two cases, you must pay 4 times the normal shipping required for a single order when you pay for each subscription. If you're in Alaska, Hawaii, or Puerto Rico you must add $20.00 for shipping for each subscription. If you're outside of U.S., Canada, and Puerto Rico, you must add $80.00 for each subscription. See "Unix and VMS Software" & "Shipping Instructions" on the see section Free Software Foundation Order Form.
The Deluxe Distribution
The Free Software Foundation has been asked repeatedly to create a package that provides executables for all of our software. Normally we offer only sources. In addition to providing binaries with the source code, the Deluxe Distribution includes a complete set of our printed manuals and reference cards.
The FSF Deluxe Distribution contains the binaries and sources to hundreds of different programs including GNU Emacs, the GNU C Compiler, the GNU Debugger, the complete X Window System, and all the GNU utilities.
We will make a Deluxe Distribution for most machines/operating systems. We may be able to send someone to your office to do the compilation, if we can't find a suitable machine close to us! However, we can only compile the programs that already support your chosen machine/system -- porting is a separate matter (to commission a port, consult the GNU Service Directory; details in section Free Software Support). Compiling all these programs takes time; a Deluxe Distribution for an unusual machine will take longer to produce than one for a common machine. Please contact the FSF Office with any questions.
We supply the software in one of these tape formats in Unix
1600 or 6250bpi 1/2in reel,
Sun DC300XLP 1/4in cartridge -- QIC24,
Hewlett-Packard 16-track DC600HC 1/4in cartridge,
IBM RS/6000 1/4in cartridge -- QIC 150,
Exabyte 8mm cartridge, or
DAT 4mm cartridge.
If your computer cannot read any of these, please contact us to see if we
can handle your format.
The manuals included are one each of the Bison, Calc, Gawk, GNU C Compiler, GNU C Library, GDB, Flex, GNU Emacs Lisp Reference, Programming in Emacs Lisp: An Introduction, Make, Texinfo, & Termcap manuals; six copies of the GNU Emacs manual; and a packet of ten reference cards each for Emacs, Bison, Calc, Flex, & GDB.
Every Deluxe Distribution also has a copy of the latest editions of our CD-ROMs (including the MS-DOS & Debian GNU/Linux Books with CD when they are available) that have sources of our software & compiler tool binaries for some systems. The MS-DOS CD is in ISO 9660 format. The other CDs are in ISO 9660 format with Rock Ridge extensions.
The price of the Deluxe Distribution is $5000 (shipping included). These sales provide enormous financial assistance to help the FSF develop more free software. To order, please fill out the "Deluxe Distribution" section on the see section Free Software Foundation Order Form and send it to:
Free Software Foundation, Inc. 51 Franklin St -- Fifth Floor Boston, MA 02110--1307 USA Telephone: +1-617-542-5942 Fax (including Japan): +1-617-542-2652 Free Dial Fax (in Japan): 0031-13-2473 (KDD) 0066-3382-0158 (IDC) Electronic mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
GNU is dedicated to having quality, easy-to-use online & printed documentation. GNU manuals are intended to explain underlying concepts, describe how to use all the features of each program, & give examples of command use. GNU manuals are distributed as Texinfo source files, which yield both typeset hardcopy via the TeX document formatting system and online hypertext display via the menu-driven Info system. Source for these manuals comes with our software; these are the manuals that we publish as printed books as well. See the see section Free Software Foundation Order Form, to order them.
Most GNU manuals are bound as soft cover books with lay-flat bindings. This allows you to open them so they lie flat on a table without creasing the binding. They have an inner cloth spine and an outer cardboard cover that will not break or crease as an ordinary paperback will. Currently, the GDB, Emacs, Emacs Lisp Reference, Programming in Emacs Lisp: An Introduction, GAWK, Make, Bison, & Texinfo manuals have this binding. The other GNU manuals also lie flat when opened, using a GBC or Wire--O binding. All our manuals are 7in by 9.25in except the 8.5in by 11in Calc manual.
The edition number of the manual and version number of the program listed after each manual's name were current at the time this Bulletin was published.
Debugging with GDB (Edition 4.12 for Version 4.14) tells how to use the GNU Debugger, run your program under debugger control, examine and alter data, modify a program's flow of control, and use GDB through GNU Emacs.
The Emacs Manual (11th Edition for Version 19.29) describes editing with
GNU Emacs. It explains advanced features, including outline mode and
regular expression search; how to use special modes for programming in
languages like C++ and TeX; how to use the
tags utility; how
to compile and correct code; how to make your own keybindings; and other
Programming in Emacs Lisp: An Introduction (Edition 1.03) is for people who are not necessarily interested in programming, but who do want to customize or extend their computing environment. If you read it in Emacs under Info mode, you can run the sample programs directly.
The GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual (Edition 2.4 for Version 19.29) covers this programming language in depth, including data types, control structures, functions, macros, syntax tables, searching/matching, modes, windows, keymaps, byte compilation, and the operating system interface.
The GAWK Manual (Edition 0.16 for Version 2.16) tells how to use the
GNU implementation of
awk. It is written for those who have never
awk and describes the features of this powerful string and
record manipulation language.
The Make Manual (Edition 0.46 for Version 3.72) describes GNU
make, a program used to rebuild parts of other programs. The manual
tells how to write makefiles, which specify how a program is to be
compiled and how its files depend on each other. Included are an
introductory chapter for novice users and a section about automatically
The Flex Manual (Edition 1.03 for Version 2.3.7) teaches you to
write a lexical scanner definition for the
flex program to create a
C++ or C-coded scanner that recognizes the patterns defined. You need
no prior knowledge of scanners.
The Bison Manual (December 1993 Edition for Version 1.23) teaches you how to write context-free grammars for the Bison program that convert into C-coded parsers. You need no prior knowledge of parser generators.
Using and Porting GNU CC (September 1994 Edition for Version 2.6) tells how to run, install, and port the GNU C Compiler to new systems. It lists new features and incompatibilities of GCC, but people not familiar with C will still need a good reference on the C programming language. It also covers G++. We are doing limited copier runs of this manual until it becomes more stable.
The Texinfo Manual (Edition 2.21 for Version 3) explains the markup language that produces our online Info documentation & typeset hardcopies. It tells you how to make tables, lists, chapters, nodes, indexes, cross references, & how to catch mistakes. This second edition describes over 50 new commands.
The Termcap Manual (2nd Edition for Version 1.2), often described as "twice as much as you ever wanted to know about termcap," details the format of the termcap database, the definitions of terminal capabilities, and the process of interrogating a terminal description. This manual is primarily for programmers.
The C Library Reference Manual (Edition 0.06 for Version 1.09)
describes most of the facilities of the GNU C library, including both what
Unix calls "library functions" and "system calls." We are doing
limited copier runs of this manual until it becomes more stable. Please
send corrections and improvements to
The Emacs Calc Manual (Edition 2.02 for Version 2.02) is both a tutorial and a reference manual. It tells how to do ordinary arithmetic, how to use Calc for algebra, calculus, and other forms of mathematics, and how to extend Calc.
Language is thought, and the state has no right getting mixed up in it.
- Laurent Dominati, a member of the conservative Union for French Democracy, referring to a recent attempt to legislate usage of the French language
How to Get GNU Software
All the software & publications from the Free Software Foundation are distributed with permission to copy and redistribute. One way to get GNU software is to copy it from someone else who has it. You can also get GNU software directly from the FSF by ordering diskettes, tapes, CD-ROMs, or Books with CD-ROMs. Such orders provide most of the funds for the FSF staff to develop more free software, so please support our work by ordering from the FSF if you can. See the see section Free Software Foundation Order Form.
There are also third party groups who distribute our software; they do not work with us, but can provide our software in other forms. Some are listed in section Free Software for Microcomputers; also see section Free Software Redistributors Donate. Please note that the Free Software Foundation is not affiliated with them in any way and is not responsible for either the currency of their versions or the swiftness of their responses.
If you decide to do business with a commercial distributor of free software, ask them how much they do to assist free software development, e.g., by contributing money to free software development projects or by writing free software themselves for general use. By basing your decision partially on this factor, you can help encourage support for free software development.
Our main FTP host is very busy & limits the number of logins. Please
use one of these other Internet sites that also provide GNU software via
password: your e-mail address, mode:
binary). If you have
FTP access but can't reach one of these hosts, you can get the software the
same way from GNU's main FTP host,
prep.ai.mit.edu (IP address:
126.96.36.199). For more details & additional hosts, get the
files `/pub/gnu/GETTING.GNU.SOFTWARE' and
Most of the files on the FTP sites are compressed with
lessen FTP traffic. Refer to the `/pub/gnu/=README-about-.gz-files'
on each FTP site for instructions on uncompressing them.
unpack do not work!
Those on JANET can look on host
Those who can UUCP can get UUCP instructions via electronic mail from:
For those without Internet access, see section Free Software Support, for
information on getting electronic mail and file transfer via UUCP.
Other GPL'ed Software
Here are two examples of copylefted software that we do not presently
distribute. FTP a more complete list from
`/pub/gnu/GPLedSoftware' from a GNU FTP host (listed in section How to Get GNU Software).
Please let us know of additional programs we should mention.
We don't list GNU Emacs Lisp Libraries.
archive.cis.ohio-state.edu has a list of those you can FTP
in file `/pub/gnu/emacs/elisp-archive/LCD-datafile.Z'.
- WN, an HTTP (or WWW) server
WN is a WWW (World Wide Web) server, written in C, which runs
under Unix. WN serves the HTTP/1.0 protocol.
For more information, see `http://hopf.math.nwu.edu/',
contact the author,
email@example.com, John Franks, or FTP it from `ftp.acns.nwu.edu:/pub/wn/wn.tar.gz'.
- GCT, a Test-Coverage Tool based on GCC
GCT 1.4 is a test-coverage tool based on GCC which measures how
thoroughly a test suite exercises a program. GPLed ports for Sun-3, Sun-4,
RS/6000, 68k, 88k, HP--PA, IBM 3090, Ultrix, Convex, & SCO are available
ftp.cs.uiuc.eduin files `/pub/testing/gct.1.4/ftp.*'. Send discussion list subscriptions to:
firstname.lastname@example.org, and inquries to the author Brian Marick,
email@example.com. Telephone: +1--217--351--7228.
Free Software for Microcomputers
We do not provide support for GNU software on most microcomputers because it is peripheral to the GNU Project. However, we are willing to publish information about groups who do support and maintain them. If you are aware of any such efforts, please send the details, including postal addresses, archive sites, and mailing lists, to either address on the top menu.
See section MS-DOS Diskettes and section CD-ROMs, for microcomputer software available from the FSF. Please do not ask us about any other software. We do not maintain any of it and have no additional information.
- Linux (Also see section Debian GNU/Linux Book with CD-ROM)
Linux (named after its main author, Linus Torvalds) is a GPLed kernel that
implements POSIX.1 functionality with SysV & BSD extensions. Complete
systems (essentially variant GNU systems) based on the Linux kernel are now
available for 386/486/Pentium machines with one of these buses: ISA, VLB,
EISA, PCI. Since these systems are essentially variant GNU systems, we
call them "GNU/Linux" systems. A m68k port is in testing (it runs on
high end Amiga & Atari computers). AlphaPC & MIPS ports are being worked
on. FTP it from
tsx-11.mit.eduin `/pub/linux' (USA) &
nic.funet.fiin `/pub/OS/Linux' (Europe). Ask
firstname.lastname@example.org mailing lists. See the USENET newsgroups, such as
comp.os.linux.misc, for discussions.
- Boston Computer Society
The BCS has numerous free programs for microcomputers, including some GNU
programs. Contact them to see what is available for your machine:
Boston Computer Society 101 First Avenue - Suite 2 Waltham, MA 02154 USA Telephone: +1-617-290-5700 Fax: +1-617-290-5744 Electronic-Mail:
email@example.comWorld Wide Web: `http://www.bcs.org/bcs/bcs.html'
- GNU Software on the Amiga
Get Amiga ports of many GNU programs using anonymous FTP from
ftp.funet.fiin `/pub/amiga/gnu' (Europe). For info on (or offers to help with) the GCC port and related projects, ask Leonard Norrgard,
firstname.lastname@example.org. For info on the GNU Emacs port, ask David Gay,
email@example.com. Dave Gilbert,
firstname.lastname@example.org, coordinates work on Emacs 19. You can get more info from a GNU FTP host (listed in section How to Get GNU Software) in file `/pub/gnu/MicrosPorts/Amiga'.
- GNU Software for Atari TOS and Atari Minix
Get Atari ports by anonymous FTP from
atari.archive.umich.edu, in `/atari/Gnustuff', maintained by Howard Chu,
email@example.com. The GNU software runs on all Atari 68000 and 68030-based systems; a hard drive and 4 MB RAM minimum are recommended for using the compilers. See USENET newsgroups, such as
comp.sys.atari.st.tech, for discussions.
- GNU Software for OS/2
Ports of many GNU programs are on the FTP host
ftp-os2.cdrom.comin `/pub/os2/unix'. One of these is of GNU C/C++/Objective-C Compiler to OS/2 2.x and OS/2 Warp, with the GNU assembler, documentation, and both OS/2-specific BSD C libraries. This is Eberhard Mattes
emxport, which also features GDB and many Unix-related library functions like
fork. Programs compiled by this port also run on a 80386 under DOS. It is in directory `/pub/os2/unix/emx09a'. The
emx0.9apackage offers a port of gcc-2.6.3. To join the mailing list send email to
firstname.lastname@example.org `sub emx-list firstname lastname'.
Our latest T-shirt has artwork by Berkeley, CA artist Etienne Suvasa. The front has the ever-popular picture of GNArnold from the Flex Manual, while the back has the Preamble to the GNU General Public License.
They are available in two colors, Natural & Black. Natural is an off-white, unbleached, undyed, environment-friendly cotton, printed with black ink, & is great for tye-dyeing or displaying as is. Black is printed with white ink & is perfect for late night hacking. All shirts are thick 100% cotton, & are available in sizes M, L, XL, & XXL. This shirt makes a great gift for your favorite hacker!
We don't have a patent on irony and satire; those tools are available for you to use in your own work.
- Guerrilla Girls, a New York City performance group
Project GNU Wish List
Wishes for this issue are for:
- Graphical free software applications for ordinary users who are not programmers. Oleo extensions and other free software for business, such as accounting and project management programs.
Volunteers to distribute this Bulletin at technical conferences, trade
shows, local and national user group meetings, etc. Volunteers to get
articles into their user group newsletters. Please phone or fax the
the top menu,
email@example.com make arrangements.
- Boston area volunteers for various tasks in the FSF Distribution and Programming Offices. Please contact us at either address on the top menu.
Volunteers to help write programs and documentation. Send mail to
firstname.lastname@example.org the task list and coding standards.
- Volunteers to build binaries for systems not yet on the section December 1994 Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM (especially for systems that don't come with a C compiler). Please contact us at either address on the top menu.
- SCSI tape drives for 4mm DAT cartridge tapes, 8mm Exabyte cartridge tapes, and 1600 or 6250bpi 1/2inch reel to reel tapes.
- 600+ megabyte SCSI disks to give us more space to develop software.
- Pentium, 486, or 386 PC laptops.
- Pentium, 486, or 386 PC compatibles with 200+ MB of disk & Ethernet cards. High end HP-300, HP-700, & HP-800 workstations. Sun SPARCstations. Sixteen or thirty-two 1 Meg SIMMs for a Sun 4/110.
- Companies to lend good programmers & technical writers for at least six months. True wizards may be welcome for less time, but we have found that this is the minimum time for a programmer to finish a worthwhile project.
- Professors who might be interested in sponsoring or hosting research assistants to do actual GNU development, with partial FSF support.
- Speech and character recognition software and systems (if the devices aren't too weird), with the device drivers if possible. This would help the productivity of partially disabled people (including a few we know).
- New quotes and ideas for articles in the GNU's Bulletin. We particularly like to highlight organizations involved with free information exchanges, software that uses the GNU General Public License and companies providing free software support as a primary business.
- Information about free software or developers of free software that we may not know about. Often, we only find out about interesting projects because a user writes and asks us why we have not mentioned those projects!
Copies of newspaper and journal articles mentioning the GNU Project or GNU
software. Send these to the address on
the top menu,
or send a citation
- Money. If you use & appreciate our software, please send a contribution. One way to help is to order a tape, diskette, CD-ROM, or Book with CD-ROM from us. A business can make a larger contribution by ordering a section The Deluxe Distribution. This is especially helpful if you work for an organization where the word "donation" is anathema. Because of the value received, the full dollar amounts of such donations are not tax deductible as charitable contributions; however, they may qualify as a business expense.
Thanks to Jill and Professor Donald Knuth of Stanford University for their regular, substantial contributions. Thanks to John Romkey for his large gift.
Thanks to all those mentioned elsewhere in this and past Bulletins.
Thanks to the many companies and organizations who have bought our Deluxe Distribution package.
Thanks to the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Laboratory for Computer Science, and Project Athena all at MIT for their invaluable assistance.
Thanks to the Hewlett Packard Computer Users' Association in Japan for their quarterly donations. Thanks to the Nihon Sun Users Group & Hitachi, Ltd. for their generous contributions. Thanks to Addison-Wesley Publishers Japan Ltd., A.I. Soft, Village Center, Inc., ASCII Corporation, & many others in Japan, for their donations & support. For their help in Japan, thanks to: Nobuyuki Hikichi, Mieko Hikichi, Ken'ichi Handa, Prof. Masayuki Ida, & Yukitoshi Fujimura.
For donating booths at their conferences, thanks to: the USENIX Association at Winter USENIX 95; and Dave Crowley and others at HP at the HPUX Developers Conference. Thanks to all the volunteers who helped the GNU Project at these and other conferences.
Thanks to Wired Magazine and Barry Meikle of the University of Toronto Bookstore for donating ad space in their separate publications. Thanks to Warren A. Hunt, Jr. and Computational Logic, Inc. for their continued donations and support.
Thanks again to Cygnus Support for assisting the GNU Project in many ways.
Thanks to all those who have lent or donated machines, including: Tadashi Kobayashi of Toshiba Corporation & Shinichi Mochizuki of Toshiba America for a T4850 notebook computer; Cygnus Support for a Sun SPARCstation; Delta Microsystems for a new Exabyte tape drive; an anonymous donor for a 4mm DAT cartridge drive; Concentra, Inc. for four HP workstations; Network Computing Devices, Inc. for three NCD X-terminals; Russ Button for two SCSI disk drives; Doug Lewan for a Sun-3/60; Computer Publishing Group, publishers of SunExpert & RS/6000, for several Sun workstations; Simson Garfinkel for an NCD X-terminal; Benjamin Cline for a Xylogics SMD controller; IBM Corp. for an Exabyte tape drive & an RS/6000; Hewlett-Packard for a dozen computers; CMU's Mach Project for a Sun-3/60; Intel Corp. for their 386 machine; NeXT for their workstation; MIT's Media Laboratory for a HP 68020; SONY Corp. & Software Research Associates, Inc., both of Tokyo, for three SONY News workstations; MIT's Laboratory for Computer Science for the DEC MicroVAX; the Open Software Foundation for two Compaq 386s; an anonymous donor for a Sun-3/280; Liant Software Corp. for 5 VT100s; Jerry Peek for a 386 machine; Interleaf, Inc., for the loan of a scanner; several anonymous donors for 8 IBM RT/PCs; & Rocky Bernstein for much IBM RT/PC hardware & manuals.
Thanks to all who have contributed ports and extensions, as well as all who have sent in other source code, documentation, and good bug reports.
Thanks to all those who sent money and offered other kinds of help.
Thanks to all those who support us by ordering t-shirts, manuals, reference cards, distribution tapes, diskettes, CD-ROMs, and Books with CD-ROMs.
The creation of this Bulletin is our way of thanking all who have expressed interest in what we are doing.
Donations Translate Into Free Software
If you appreciate Emacs, GNU CC, Ghostscript, and other free software, you may wish to help us make sure there is more in the future--remember, donations translate into more free software!
Your donation to us is tax-deductible in the United States. We gladly accept any currency, although the U.S. dollar is the most convenient.
If your employer has a matching gifts program for charitable donations, please arrange to: add the FSF to the list of organizations for your employer's matching gifts program; and have your donation matched (note section Cygnus Matches Donations!). If you do not know, please ask your personnel department.
Circle amount you are donating, cut out this form, and send it with your donation to:
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Cygnus Matches Donations!
To encourage cash donations to the Free Software Foundation, Cygnus Support will continue to contribute corporate funds to FSF to accompany gifts by its employees, and by its customers and their employees.
Donations payable to the Free Software Foundation should be sent by eligible persons to Cygnus Support, which will add its gifts and forward the total to the FSF each quarter. The FSF will provide the contributor with a receipt to recognize the contribution (which is tax-deductible on U.S. tax returns). For more information, please contact Cygnus:
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